(03) Respiratory System II Flashcards Preview

002 - organology (III) > (03) Respiratory System II > Flashcards

Flashcards in (03) Respiratory System II Deck (26):
1

(Bronchioles)

1. arise from what?

2. branch into several generations and end as what?

3. What differentiates them from bronchi?

1. bronchi

2. terminal bronchioles

3. walls lack cartilage

2

(Bronchioles)

(Epithelium)

1. what is it like?

2. when do cilia start to disappear?

1. ciliated simple columnar/cuboidal

2. as terminal bronchioles become respiratory bronchioles

3

(Bronchioles)

(Epithelium)

1-4. What are the four cell types?

1. goblet cells

2. ciliated cells

3. bronchiolar secretory cells

4. brush cells

4

(Bronchioles)

(Epithelium)

(Goblet Cells)

1. numbers increase or decrease distally?

2. until entirely absent in what?

1. decrease

2. terminal bronchioles

5

(Bronchioles)

(Epithelium)

(Ciliated Cells)

1. most numerous, increase or decrease caudally?

1. decrease

6

(Bronchioles)

(Epithelium)

(Bronchiolar Secretory Cells - Clara cells)

1. increase or decrease distally along the length of the bronchiole

2. histologically they have dome shaped apices that do what?

(Function)

3. secretion of what that does what?

4. what else?

1. increase

2. protrude into lumen

3. surface-active protein lipoprotein that prevents luminal adhesion

4. metabolize and detoxify xenobiotics (xeno = foreign)

7

(Bronchioles)

(Epithelium)

(Brush cells)

1. columnar cells that bear what?

2. Basal surface is in synaptic contact with what?

1. microvilli

2. afferent nerve endings (appear to play a sensory role)

8

(Bronchioles)

(Lamina Propria)

1. consists of loose connective tissue with many lymphoccytes and elastic fibers?

2. are there cartilage or glands?

2. no

9

(Bronchioles)

(Muscularis Mucosae)

1. Consists of smooth muscle that is how thick in the tertiary (terminal) bronchiole

2. What occurs in asthma?

(Tunica Mucosa)

3. comprised of loose connective tissue with many elastic fibers

1. one layer thick

2. constriction of smooth muscle

10

(Bronchioles)

(Innervation)

1. parasympathetic does what?

2. and sympathetic?

1. constriction of smooth muscle

2. dilation

11

(Bronchioles)

1. What extend further down the respiratory tree than glands?

2. This has functional significance in that it minimizes the possibility of what occuring?

1. cilia

2. secretions "leaking" into the exchange portion of the lung

12

(Transitional Zone - between conducting and respiratory portion)

1. Respiratory bronchiole - plays what two roles? well developed in what? poorly developed in what?

2. similar to terminal bronchiole but what?

3. what cells predominate?

1. conducting and gas exchange; monkeys and carnivores; horse and man

2. alveoli interrupt less than half of the wall

3. ciliated cells and clara cells

13

(Respiratory Zone - where most the gas exchange occurs)

(alveolar ducts)

1. similar to respiratory bronchiole but alveoli do what?

 

1. interrupt more than half of the wall

14

(Respiratory Zone - where most the gas exchange occurs)

(Alveoli)

1. main functional units of the respiartory system where gas exchange occurs (~300 X 10^6 total, each 0.3 mm diameter)

2. Spherical structures lined by an alveolar epithelium composed of what two cell types?

3. What lies between two adjacent alveolli?

2. Type 1 and 2 pneumocytes

3. Interalveolar septum (wall) (contains capillaries, fibroblasts, elastic and reticular fibers and macrophages/lymphocytes)

15

(Respiratory Zone - where most the gas exchange occurs)
(Alveoli)

1-5. What are the five cell types in the alveolar wall?

1. endothelial cell (30%) - continuous with fenestrated

2. Type I pneumocyte (8%) -- squamous

3. Type II pneumocyte (16%)

4. fibroblasts and mast cells (36%)

5. macrophages (10%)

16

(Alveoli)

(Type 1 Pneumocytes - Type 1 alveolar epithelial cells)

1. squamous cells

2. what between adjacent cells prevent fluid leakage into air space?

3. major or minor cell type in alveoli?

4. are they readily permeable to gases?

2. tight junctions

3. major (97% of alveolar surface)

4. yes

17

(Alveoli)

(Type II pneumocytes or Great Alveolar Cells)

1. cuboidal cells interposed between the type I pneumocytes and bulging into alveolar lumen (3% of alveolar lining)

2. Characterized by the presence of what?

3. Produce what?

4. What is seen in animals born prematurely (neonatal respiratory distress syndrome)? leads to what?

5. is there a constant turnover of srfactant?

2. cytoplasmic lamellar bodies (continuously synthesized and released apically)

3. surfactant (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine), an extracellular alveolar which lowers surface tension and prevents collapse of alveolus on expiration. (Alveoli can more easily remain open and are more stable)

4. lack of surfactant; stiffness of lungs and collapse of alveoli

5. yep

18

(Alveoli)

(Alveolar macrophages - dust cells)

1. derived from what that migrate from what?

2. found where?

3. contain phagocytized inclusions such as dust and airborne particles

4. increase in failure of what?

1. monocytes that migrate from capillaries

2. alveolar walls and lumen

4. heart failure (commonly referred to as heart failure cells)

19

(Alveoli)

(Gas Exchange Barrier)

1-3. what are the three layers?

1. alveolar epithelial cell

2. fused basement membranes of type 1 epithelium and endothelium

3. capillary endothelial cell

20

(Alveoli)

1. alveoli communicate with adjacent alveoli through what?

2. what do these do?

(Note)

3. each blood cell spends how much time in capillary network of lung? traverses how many alveoli in that time? allowing what to occur?

1. alveolar pores (that are 3-15 um in diameter)

2. help equalize pressure between alveoli

3. 3/4 second; 2 or 3 alveoli; gas equilibration

21

(Alveoli)

(Neuroendocrine Cells)

1. Small cells containing dense granules (EM) found in the epithelia from where to where?

2. part of what system?

3. appear to be involvend in paracrine, regulatory functions

4. visible in routine staining preparations?

5. occur singly or in small groups, some of these are innervated

6. give rise to what disease?

1. larynx to the bronchiolo-alveolar junction

2 APUD (Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) series of cells [a cell capable of amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation and of synthesizing and secreting polypeptide hormones]

4. no

6. bronchiol carcinoma (tumor of bronchi or bronchioles)

22

Check out the graph in the book a bunch

23

(Blood supply)

1. arterial consists of what two?

2. venous?

1. arterial and venous

2. all pulmonary veins

24

(Blood supply)

(Arterial)

(pulmonary)

1. low or high pressure system?

2. more or fewer elastic or collagen fibers?

3. receives the entire what?

(bronchial)

4. supplies what?

1. low

2. fewer

3. entire right ventricular output

4. large bronchi, major pulmonary blood vessels and lymph nodes

25

(Pulmonary lymphatics)

1. are throuhgout the interstitium - are they in the interalveolar space?

1. no

26

(Innervation)

1. What innervate respiratory smooth musculature?

2. general viscearl afferents carried primarily in the vagus nerve originate from what?

1. general visceral efferent fibers from the vagus nerve and thoracic segments of the sympathetic trunk

2. mechanoreceptors in the lung and conductive passages