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Flashcards in 04 Immunology Deck (63):
1

illustration of antigen processing and presentation?

https://www.dropbox.com/s/6g3zee05j7k3r17/Screenshot%202013-11-07%2000.29.54.jpg

2

what is the most abundant antibody in the body?

IgG

3

which antibody is for allergic reactions, parasite infections?

IgE

4

what are examples of type II hypersensitivity reaction?

ABO blood incompatibility, graves' disease, myasthenia gravis

5

what do cytotoxic T cells do?

recognize and attack non-self antigens attached to MHC class I receptors (eg viral gene products)

6

what is type II hypersensitivity reaction mediated by?

IgG or IgM reacts with cell-bound antigen

7

what is the structure of MHC class I?

single chain w 5 domains

8

what do cd4 cells release?

release IL2, IL4

9

what antibody is responsible for secondary immune response?

IgG

10

what happens through the immunologic cascade when bacterial infections occur?

endocytosis by APCs (antigen presenting cells), proteins get bound to class II MHC molecules, go to cell surface, are recognized by CD4 helper T cells --> B cells which have already bound to the atigen are then activated by the CD4 helper T cells; they then produce the antibody to that antigen and are transformed to plasma cells and memory B cells.

11

where are MHC class I cells located?

all nucleated cells

12

what does IL2 do?

causes maturation of cytotoxic T cells

13

what is type IV hypersensitivity reaction mediated by?

antigen stimulation of previously sensitized T cells.

14

what is type I hypersensitivity mediated by?

eosinophils have IgE receptors for antigen and they release major basic protein

15

what does MBP activate and eventually cause release of what?

activates mast cells and basophils, and releases histamine, serotonin, bradykinin

16

what are the types of antibodies?

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE

17

what is the initial antibody made after exposure to antigen?

IgM

18

what is the cell cascade when a pt gets a viral infection?

endogenous viral proteins produced, are bound to class I MHC, go to cell surface, recognized by CD8 cytotoxic T cells

19

what are the types of MHC classes?

MHC class I (A,B, and C) and class II (DR, DP, DQ)

20

what are examples of type I hypersensitivity reaction?

bee stings, peanuts, hay fever

21

what do suppressor T cells do?

regulate CD4 and CD8 cells

22

where are MHC class II cells located?

antigen-presenting cells (monocytes, dendrites)

23

how do you test cell-mediated immunity?

intradermal skin test (ie TB skin test)

24

what type of infections are associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity?

intracellular pathogens (TB, viruses)

25

which antibodies fix complement?

IgM and IgG. They require 2 IgGs or 1 IgM

26

what does IL4 do?

causes B-cell maturation into plasma cells

27

what kind of hypersensitivity is CD4 involved in?

delayed-typed hypersensitivity

28

what do plasma cells do?

secrete antibodies

29

describe T and B cell activation through illustration.

https://www.dropbox.com/s/sogscx8m9wrjqnt/Screenshot%202013-11-07%2000.34.36.jpg

30

what is MHC class I function?

target for cytotoxic T cells (CD8). they bind T-cell receptor

31

what are the types of hypersensitivity reactions?

I: immediate hypersensitivity reaction (allergic)
II: antibody mediated hypersensitivity reaction
III: immune complex deposition hypersensitivity reaction
IV: delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction

32

what is special about NK cells?

not restricted by MHC, do not require previous exposure, do not require antigen presentation. Not considered T or B cells

33

what is the name of CD4 cells?

helper T cells

34

what do MHC class II do?

activate helper T (CD4) cells by binding T cell receptor and stimulates antibody formation after interaction w B cell surface IgM

35

why are T cells called T cells and B cells called B?

Thymus and Bone

36

what type of cells are part of the body's natural immunosurveillance for cancer?

NK cells

37

what is the structure of MHC class II?

2 chains w 4 domains each

38

what are the types of CD8 cells?

suppressor T cels and cytotoxic T cells

39

what cells do natural killer cells recognize?

cells that LACK self-MHC

40

which antibody is a membrane-bound receptor on B cells, serving as an antigen receptor?

IgD

41

what are examples of type III hypersensitivity reaction?

serum sickness, SLE

42

what makes B cells become plasma cells?

IL4 from T cells

43

what is type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by?

immune complex deposition

44

which antibody gives newborn protection by crossing through placenta?

IgG

45

what antibody is found in secretions? where else is it found?

IgA. found in peyer's patches in gut, breast milk (for newborns), prevents microbial adherence and invasion in gut.

46

what is delayed type hypersensitivity?

brings in inflammatory cells by chemokine secretion

47

what part of the antibody is recognized by PMNs and macrophages?

constant region

48

which antibodies are opsonins?

IgM and IgG

49

what is the difference between polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies?

polyclonal has multiple binding sites to the antigen at multiple epitopes. monoclonal has only 1 binding site to 1 epitope

50

what is the largest antibody?

IgM. Has 5 domains (10 binding sites)

51

what part of the antibody does antigen recognition?

variable region

52

when do you give tetanus immune globulin?

give only with tetanus-prone wounds in pts who have not been immunized or if immunization status is unknown

53

what cell is the major source of histamine in the tissue?

mast cell

54

what is an immunologic chimera?

2 different cell lines in one individual (eg bone marrow transplant pts)

55

what are examples of delayed-typed hypersensitivity reaction?

TB skin test (PPD), contact dermatitis

56

what are the secondary lymphoid organs?

spleen and lymph nodes

57

what are tetanus prone wounds?

(> 6 hrs old, obvious contamination and devitalized tissue; crush, burn, frostbite, or missile injuries

58

what cytokine has shown success for melanoma?

IL-2

59

what are the primary lymphoid organs?

liver, bone, thymus

60

what cell is the major source of histamine in the blood?

basophils

61

what does IL2 do to tumors?

converts lymphocytes to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells by enhancing their immune response to tumor

62

what cytokine converts lymphocytes to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?

IL-2

63

when do you give tetanus toxoid?

in non tetanus prone wounds: only if pt has received < 3 doses or tetanus status is unknown

in tetanus prone wounds: always give tetanus toxoid unless >= 3 doses and it has been < 5 years since last booster