04b: Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04b: Genetics Deck (27):
1

(X) are the vehicles for genes.

X = chromosomes

2

We have how many pairs of chromosomes?

23 pairs

3

Meiosis produces (haploid/diploid/polyploid) cells.

Haploid (1n)

4

Turner's syndrome has (X) karyotype, which indicates (extra/missing):

X = XO

Missing sex chromosome

5

A small change in number of chromosomes has what effect on genes?

Changes hundred to thousands of genes

6

Gene mutations can be found in which specific parts of gene?

Anywhere! (Promoter region, exons, introns, etc)

7

In meiosis I, (X) separate. And in meiosis II, (Y) separate.

X = homologous chromosomes

Y = sister chromatids

8

What's the sum rule?

Determine probability of normal offspring by:

P (homozygous normal) + p (heterozygous normal)

9

What's the law of independent assortment?

Individual hereditary factors assort independently of each other

10

Is there an exception to law of independent assortment?

Yes - linked genes

11

Describe meiotic recombination.

Shuffling of genetic components between homologs

12

Probability of recombination between two genetic (X) is directly proportional to:

X = loci

Physical distance that separates them on chromosome

13

Two genes closer together are (more/less/equally) likely to undergo recombination than two genes further apart.

Less likely

14

In (X), each genotype has a different phenotype.

X = Incomplete dominance

15

Crossing red and white flowers gives some pink flowers. This is example of:

Incomplete dominance

16

Inheritance of Hyperlipoproteinemia follows rules of incomplete dominance. Heterozygous phenotype would be:

Mild case of disease

17

Give example of Codominance.

Blood type

18

What's the difference between Codominance and incomplete dominance?

Codominance shows simultaneous expression of both alleles, not a blend of traits.

19

What's incomplete penetrance?

Having certain genotype means there's

20

What are phenocopies?

Two different phenotypes that look identical, but one case is inherited while the other is sporadic

21

Albinism is an example of (X), where (Y) gene(s) mutated results in multiple affected systems.

X = pleiotropy

Y = one

22

We must fit (X) length of DNA into a nucleus of what size?

X = 2 m

Nucleus of 6 micrometers

23

Addition of acetyl groups on (X) will (open/close) chromatin. Why?

X = Histone tail

Open;

Neutralizes Lys, decreasing attraction of Histone to DNA backbone

24

T/F: If a methylated DNA strand is replicated, there's maintenance of methylation on copy strand.

True

25

A (methylated/unmethylated) CpG and (acetylated/deacetylated) Histone gene is OFF.

Methylated; deacetylated

26

A (methylated/unmethylated) CpG and (acetylated/deacetylated) Histone gene is ON.

Unmethylated; acetylated

27

Imprinting refers to:

Genes inherited with different methylation states (from each parent)