07_Antibiotics Chart_E18 and E19_Spencer - Sheet1 Flashcards Preview

M1 Micro Bacteriology Quiz 1 > 07_Antibiotics Chart_E18 and E19_Spencer - Sheet1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 07_Antibiotics Chart_E18 and E19_Spencer - Sheet1 Deck (28)
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1

Trimethoprim resistance

Plasmid-coded, trimethoprim-resistant dihydrofolate reductase.

2

Penicillins resistance

Hydrolysis of ß-lactam ring by ß-lactamase enzyme; decreased Cephalosporins permeability of bacteria to the antibiotic; altered penicillin binding proteins.

3

Methicillin resistance

Altered penicillin binding proteins (not in ß-lactamase). (a ß-lactamase-resistant penicillin).

4

Aminoglycosides resistance

Enzymatic modification of drug by plasmid-coded enzyme; decreased permeability of bacteria to the antibiotic; mutation alters site to which antibiotic normally binds (e.g. S12 ribosomal protein for streptomycin).

5

Tetracyclines resistance

Interference with transport of drug into cell.

6

Chloramphenicol resistance

Detoxification of drug by acetylation of hydroxyl.

7

Erythromycin resistance

Enzymatic methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA.

8

Ciprofloxacin & Rifampin resistance

Altered target enzymes (gyrase, RNAP)

9

Vancomycin resistance

Alteration of cell wall precursor target.

11

Antimetabolites (sulfonamides, trimethoprim)

Inhibit synthesis of dihydrofolate, ultimately nucleic acid synthesis.

12

Antimetabolite flucytosine

inhibits thmidylate synthetase and ultimately DNA synthesis

13

Isoniazid

Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid (specific for Mycobacteria)

14

b-Lactams, penicillins, cephalosporins

Interfere with cell wall biosynthesis. Inhibition of transpeptidation weakens cell wall. Autolytic enzymes of bacteria then promote lysis.

15

Cycloserine, bacitracin, glycopeptides, vancomycin, teichoplanin, caspofungin

Interfere with cell wall biosynthesis.

16

Polymyxins, polyenes, nystatin, amphotericin B, daptomycin

Disrupt membrane integrity.

17

Aminoglycosides (streptomycin)

Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to a specific protein of 30S ribosomal subunit.

18

Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin)

Bind to 30S ribosomal subunit at multiple sites. Inhibit protein synthesis.

19

Tetracyclines

Block protein synthesis by inhibiting binding of amino-acyl t-RNA to 30S subunit.

20

Erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol

Bind to 50S ribosomal subunit. Inhibit protein synthesis at chain elongation step.

21

Oxazolidinones (linezolid)

Bind rRNA on both ribosomal subunits (new)

22

Streptogramins (dalfopristin, quinupristin)

Bind to 50S ribosomal subunit (new)

23

Mupirocin

Binds isoleucyl tRNA synthetase, preventing charging of Ile-tRNA and thus affecting protein synthesis.

24

Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin)

Inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase.

25

Nitroimidazoles

Fragment DNA

26

Rifampin

Binds to bacterial RNA polymerase and blocks transcription.

27

Azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole)

Inhibit ergosterol synthesis.

28

Ethambutol

Unknown, anti-TB

29

Pyrazinamide

Unknown, anti-TB