Flashcards in 08 Cone & Rod Circuits Deck (37):
what type of feedback do horizontal cells provide to cones?
negative feedback (inhibitory)
bipolar cells are considered on or off cells. what cells communicate if less light is being detected?
29 What type of system is used by retinal ganglion cells to detect light?
29 What are the three types of signals that can be generated using the centers-surrounds system?
1. On2. Off3. On-Off (intermediate or summation of on and off)
30 What type of response would be generated if just the center of the receptive field was stimulated by light?
An "on" response
30 What can the centers-surrounds system detect?
Contrast edges (contrast borders)
32 What defines the ganglion cell's contrast sensitivity?
The size of it's receptive field
33 When referring to how ganglion cells respond to stimulus, midget cells are _____ and parasol cells are _______.
33 What does a tonic response tell the brain?
How big of a change in light stimulus there was
33 What does a phasic response tell the brain?
How things (light) are moving around in space (on the retina)
what type of bipolar cell uses metabotropic channels?
bipolar on cells
do bipolar off cells have metabotropic or ionotropic channels?
is the on-sublayer closer to the peducle of the cone?
no. the off-sublayer is
which type of cell will create a hyperpolarizing signal?
the off cell
what type of neurotransmitter do amacrine cells use?
glycine and GABA
do rods have a larger synaptic terminal than a cone?
no. rods have a small synaptic terminal compared to cones
02 What is the neurotransmitter released from the synaptic terminal?
02 Which cells defines if there is a decrease/increase in photons?
03 Cell begin to _______ as it catches more photons, causes _______ in releasing of glutamate.
04 An ______ in photons causes a ______ in glumate release
05 Each cone contacts 100's of _____ and _____ cells.
bipolar and horizontal cells
05 In the synaptic terminal, glutamate binds on ______ and released in vesicle.
06 Horizontal section of cone pedicle have about 40 ________
07 Both sides of each ribbon is flanked by which cells?
08 What do bipolar cells do?
Complete the triad of connections and also get good information about changes in glutamate released
09 In horizontal section of each cone pedicle, processes are packed _____ to each other.
19 - Which types of cells do rods contact?
Only H1 cells and Rod bipolar cells
19 - Each H1 cells contacts about how many rods at a time?
About 700 rods at a time
19 - T/F Each rod communicates with at least 2 horizontal cells in order to spread the signal to both sides of the periphery of where thatrod is located.
20 - T/F All rod bipolar cells are "on-cells".
21 - What type of amacrine cells connect rods to bipolar cone cells in order to communicate?
22 - Because of the sensitivity of rods - they produce a signal that is _________ times stronger than a cone.
24 - What are the four types of ganglion cells?
1) Parasol ganglion cells2) Midget ganglion cells3) Blue-yellow ganglion cells4) Biplexiform ganglion cells
24 - 95% of the fovea will contain which type of ganglion cell?
Midget ganglion cells
24 - Blue-yellow ganglion cells communicate with which type of cones?
25 - What does the neural signal depend on?
Changes in firing rate