08 Cone & Rod Circuits Flashcards Preview

Vision Science I > 08 Cone & Rod Circuits > Flashcards

Flashcards in 08 Cone & Rod Circuits Deck (37):
1

what type of feedback do horizontal cells provide to cones?

negative feedback (inhibitory)

2

bipolar cells are considered on or off cells. what cells communicate if less light is being detected?

off cells

3

29 What type of system is used by retinal ganglion cells to detect light?

centers-surrounds

4

29 What are the three types of signals that can be generated using the centers-surrounds system?

1. On2. Off3. On-Off (intermediate or summation of on and off)

5

30 What type of response would be generated if just the center of the receptive field was stimulated by light?

An "on" response

6

30 What can the centers-surrounds system detect?

Contrast edges (contrast borders)

7

32 What defines the ganglion cell's contrast sensitivity?

The size of it's receptive field

8

33 When referring to how ganglion cells respond to stimulus, midget cells are _____ and parasol cells are _______.

tonic, phasic

9

33 What does a tonic response tell the brain?

How big of a change in light stimulus there was

10

33 What does a phasic response tell the brain?

How things (light) are moving around in space (on the retina)

11

what type of bipolar cell uses metabotropic channels?

bipolar on cells

12

do bipolar off cells have metabotropic or ionotropic channels?

ionotropic channels

13

is the on-sublayer closer to the peducle of the cone?

no. the off-sublayer is

14

which type of cell will create a hyperpolarizing signal?

the off cell

15

what type of neurotransmitter do amacrine cells use?

glycine and GABA

16

do rods have a larger synaptic terminal than a cone?

no. rods have a small synaptic terminal compared to cones

17

02 What is the neurotransmitter released from the synaptic terminal?

Glutamate

18

02 Which cells defines if there is a decrease/increase in photons?

Bipolar cells

19

03 Cell begin to _______ as it catches more photons, causes _______ in releasing of glutamate.

hyperpolarize, decrease

20

04 An ______ in photons causes a ______ in glumate release

increase, decrease

21

05 Each cone contacts 100's of _____ and _____ cells.

bipolar and horizontal cells

22

05 In the synaptic terminal, glutamate binds on ______ and released in vesicle.

synaptic riboon

23

06 Horizontal section of cone pedicle have about 40 ________

synaptic ribbons

24

07 Both sides of each ribbon is flanked by which cells?

horizontal cells.

25

08 What do bipolar cells do?

Complete the triad of connections and also get good information about changes in glutamate released

26

09 In horizontal section of each cone pedicle, processes are packed _____ to each other.

Very densely

27

19 - Which types of cells do rods contact?

Only H1 cells and Rod bipolar cells

28

19 - Each H1 cells contacts about how many rods at a time?

About 700 rods at a time

29

19 - T/F Each rod communicates with at least 2 horizontal cells in order to spread the signal to both sides of the periphery of where thatrod is located.

true

30

20 - T/F All rod bipolar cells are "on-cells".

true

31

21 - What type of amacrine cells connect rods to bipolar cone cells in order to communicate?

all (A2)

32

22 - Because of the sensitivity of rods - they produce a signal that is _________ times stronger than a cone.

100 times

33

24 - What are the four types of ganglion cells?

1) Parasol ganglion cells2) Midget ganglion cells3) Blue-yellow ganglion cells4) Biplexiform ganglion cells

34

24 - 95% of the fovea will contain which type of ganglion cell?

Midget ganglion cells

35

24 - Blue-yellow ganglion cells communicate with which type of cones?

S-cones

36

25 - What does the neural signal depend on?

Changes in firing rate

37

26 - What types of responses do ganglion cells have?

On- and Off- responses