Flashcards in 08. P3 Generating Electricity Deck (41)
Define - Acid rain
Environmental problem caused by sulfur dioxide (which is released by burning fossil fuels)
Define - Biofuel
A carbon-neutral, renewable type of fuel obtained from living or recently living organisms (wood is common example)
Define - Carbon-neutral
Only releases the same amount of carbon dioxide that it absorbed during its lifetime, so there is no overall increase in carbon dioxide by burning it.
Define - Fossil Fuels
Coal, oil and gas. Finite fuels which have been produced over millions of years.
Define - Geothermal energy
Uses heat from the energy released by radioactive substances deep within the Earth.
Define - Hydroelectric power
Uses a dam that directs water through a turbine to generate electricity.
Define - National grid
Network of cables and transformers that transfers electricity around the country.
Define - Solar cell
Panel that converts energy from the sun into electrical energy. Also called a photovoltaic cell.
Define - Solar heating panel
Panel that converts energy from the sun to thermal energy by heating water which is passing through the pipes.
Define - Solar power tower
Uses many mirrors to reflect sunlight onto a water tank on top of a tower, steam produced turns turbines andthen generators.
Define - Start-up time
Time taken for power stations to start up. Nuclear has the longest, then coal, then oil, then natural gas. Hydroelectric has shortest start up time
Define - Tidal power
Uses trapped high tides to force water through a turbine to generate electricity.
Define - Turbine
Rotates when steam or water is pushed through it. Used to drive a generator.
Define - Wave power
Uses the movment of water waves to generate electricity by turning turbines and generators.
Define - Wind power
Uses the wind to turn turbines/generator, and generate electricity.
Advantages of biofuels
Renewable, Carbon neutral, reliable
Advantages of Geothermal energy
Free fuel costs, No carbon dioxide released, renewable, reliable
Advantages of hydroelectric power
No pollution, short start up time, fuel is free, reliable
Advantages of nuclear power
Uranium is highly available(for now) and reliable, Lots of energy released per kg of fuel, No greenhouse gases
Advantages of tidal barrages
No pollution, Reliable, Free fuel costs
Advantages of wave power
No carbon dioxide or carbon particulates emitted, renewable source, no fuel costs
Advantages of wind power
No carbon dioxide or carbon particulate emitted, renewable source, no fuel costs
Disadvantages of biofuels
Large areas of land needed to grow fuel, large amounts of fuel needed to match a fossil fuel output.
Disadvantages of geothermal energy
Only possible in volcanic areas sos uitable sites difficult to find, expensive to build
Disadvantages of hydroelectric power
Flood a valley, loss of habitat, high build costs
Disadvantages of nuclear power
Produces nuclear waste, expensive to build, high safety costs, non-renewable
Disadvantages of underground cables
Expensive to install and fix, takes longer to install, Insulation needed to reduce risk of electrocution
Disadvantages of overhead cables
Eye-sore, Damages landscapes, Can be damamged by weather, Easy access allows possible vandalism, Hazard to low flying air crafts
Disadvantages of solar cells
Only works at day time, unreliable, high initial costs (although these are getting cheaper)