08. P3 Generating Electricity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 08. P3 Generating Electricity Deck (41)
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1

Define - Acid rain

Environmental problem caused by sulfur dioxide (which is released by burning fossil fuels)

2

Define - Biofuel

A carbon-neutral, renewable type of fuel obtained from living or recently living organisms (wood is common example)

3

Define - Carbon-neutral

Only releases the same amount of carbon dioxide that it absorbed during its lifetime, so there is no overall increase in carbon dioxide by burning it.

4

Define - Fossil Fuels

Coal, oil and gas. Finite fuels which have been produced over millions of years.

5

Define - Geothermal energy

Uses heat from the energy released by radioactive substances deep within the Earth.

6

Define - Hydroelectric power

Uses a dam that directs water through a turbine to generate electricity.

7

Define - National grid

Network of cables and transformers that transfers electricity around the country.

8

Define - Solar cell

Panel that converts energy from the sun into electrical energy. Also called a photovoltaic cell.

9

Define - Solar heating panel

Panel that converts energy from the sun to thermal energy by heating water which is passing through the pipes.

10

Define - Solar power tower

Uses many mirrors to reflect sunlight onto a water tank on top of a tower, steam produced turns turbines andthen generators.

11

Define - Start-up time

Time taken for power stations to start up. Nuclear has the longest, then coal, then oil, then natural gas. Hydroelectric has shortest start up time

12

Define - Tidal power

Uses trapped high tides to force water through a turbine to generate electricity.

13

Define - Turbine

Rotates when steam or water is pushed through it. Used to drive a generator.

14

Define - Wave power

Uses the movment of water waves to generate electricity by turning turbines and generators.

15

Define - Wind power

Uses the wind to turn turbines/generator, and generate electricity.

16

Advantages of biofuels

Renewable, Carbon neutral, reliable

17

Advantages of Geothermal energy

Free fuel costs, No carbon dioxide released, renewable, reliable

18

Advantages of hydroelectric power

No pollution, short start up time, fuel is free, reliable

19

Advantages of nuclear power

Uranium is highly available(for now) and reliable, Lots of energy released per kg of fuel, No greenhouse gases

20

Advantages of tidal barrages

No pollution, Reliable, Free fuel costs

21

Advantages of wave power

No carbon dioxide or carbon particulates emitted, renewable source, no fuel costs

22

Advantages of wind power

No carbon dioxide or carbon particulate emitted, renewable source, no fuel costs

23

Disadvantages of biofuels

Large areas of land needed to grow fuel, large amounts of fuel needed to match a fossil fuel output.

24

Disadvantages of geothermal energy

Only possible in volcanic areas sos uitable sites difficult to find, expensive to build

25

Disadvantages of hydroelectric power

Flood a valley, loss of habitat, high build costs

26

Disadvantages of nuclear power

Produces nuclear waste, expensive to build, high safety costs, non-renewable

27

Disadvantages of underground cables

Expensive to install and fix, takes longer to install, Insulation needed to reduce risk of electrocution

28

Disadvantages of overhead cables

Eye-sore, Damages landscapes, Can be damamged by weather, Easy access allows possible vandalism, Hazard to low flying air crafts

29

Disadvantages of solar cells

Only works at day time, unreliable, high initial costs (although these are getting cheaper)

30

Disadvantages of tidal barrages

Prevents boat access, can affect habitat, high cost to build