09_Cerebral Circulation Summary_Q and A_Jonathan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 09_Cerebral Circulation Summary_Q and A_Jonathan Deck (40):
1

Internal Carotid Artery (ICA)
Where is the cervical portion located?
Are their branches from the cervical portion?

• from bifurcation of the common carotid in the neck to the skull.
• No branches.

2

Internal Carotid Artery (ICA)
Where is the petrous portion?
What are the branches of the petrous portion?

• in the petrous part of the temporal bone inconsistent branches
• tympanic and pterygoid

3

Internal Carotid Artery (ICA)
Where is the cavernous portion?
What are the branches of the cavernous portion?

• Cavernous portion- within the cavernous sinus.
• Branches to pituitary, cranial nerves, cavernous sinus, dura

4

Internal Carotid Artery (ICA)
Where is the subarachnoid portion?
What are the branches of the subarachnoid portion?

• from exit from the cavernous sinus
• bifurcates into the Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) and Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)

5

What are the branches of the intracranial Internal Carotid Artery?

• Opthalmic artery
• Posterior Communicating Artery
• Anterior Choroidal Artery
• Anterior Cerebral Artery
• Middle Cerebral Artery

6

What does the Opthalmic Artery supply?

• supplies the orbit and its contents

7

What is the function of the Posterior Communicating Artery?
What does its perforators supply?

• connects the ICA to the posterior cerebral artery
• Perforators supply optic chiasm/tract, and hypothalamus

8

What does the Anterior Choroidal Artery supply?

• optic tract
• globus pallidus
• internal capsule
• uncus
• medial temporal lobe
• choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

9

What is the course of the Anterior Cererbral Artery?

• medial division of the ICA bifurcation, takes a right angle turn at midline to travel in the interhemispheric fissure
• Connected to the other ACA via the Anterior Communicating Artery

10

What do the Anterior Cerebral Arteries supply?

• Cortical branches supply the medial frontal and parietal lobes and corpus callosum
• Perforating branches supply hypothalamus, corpus callosum, pituitary stalk, fornix, caudate, septum pellucidum

11

What is the course of the Middle Cerebral Artery?

• lateral branch of the ICA bifurcation, runs in the Sylvian Fissure

12

What does the Middle Cerebral Artery Supply?

• Cortical branches supply the anterior temporal lobe and most of the lateral hemisphere
• Perforators supply caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, internal capsule

13

What is the course of the Vertebral Artery?

• originates from the subclavian, travels through the transverse foramen, curves around the lateral mass of the atlas then enters the cranium through the foramen magnum

14

What are the branches of the Vertebral Artery?

• Muscular and meningeal branches in the neck
• Posterior Spinal Artery
• Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
• Anterior Spinal Artery

15

What does the Posterior Spinal Artery Supply?

• posterior medulla
• inferior cerebellar peduncle
• posterior third of the spinal cord

16

What does the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) supply?

• lateral medulla
• the tonsils, vermis and inferolateral surface of the cerebellum

17

What does the Anterior Spinal Artery supply?

• paramedian region of the medulla
• anterior two thirds of the spinal cord

18

Describe the course of the Basilar Artery?

• formed by the junction of the two vertebral arteries at the pontomedullary border and ends by dividing into the posterior cerebral arteries

19

What are the branches of the Basilar Artery?

• Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA)
• Pontine Arteries
• Superior Cerebellar Arteries (SCA)
• Posterior Cerebral Artery

20

What is the course of the AICA?

• runs laterally toward the internal auditory meatus and then travels in the horizontal fissure of the cerebellum

21

What does AICA supply?

• much of the cerebellum
• often gives rise to the labyrinthine artery which supplies the inner ear

22

What do the Pontine Arteries supply?

• multiple small arteries which supply the pons

23

What is the course of the Superior Cerebellar Artery SCA?

• around the pons to the upper cerebellum

24

What does the Superior Cerebellar Artery supply SCA?

• the brainstem
• upper surface of the cerebellar hemispheres
• the upper vermis

25

What is the course of the Posterior Cerebral Artery?

• runs around the brainstem and then travels between the two occipital lobes

26

What does the Posterior Cerebral Artery supply?

• cortical branches supply the
o inferomedial temporal lobe
o occipital lobe
o inferomedial parietal lobe
• perforating branches supply
o brainstem
o Thalamus
o choroid plexus of the third and fourth ventricles

27

What is the course of the Superior Sagittal Sinus?

• runs in the midline from the frontal region to the occipital region and drains into the transverse sinus

28

From what veins does the Superior Sagittal Sinus receive blood from?

• the cortical veins in frontal, parietal and occipital regions including the Vein of Trolard

29

How is the Superior Sagittal Sinus related to cerebral spinal fluid CSF?

• arachnoid granulations projecting into the superior sagittal sinus are responsible for the bulk of CSF absorption

30

What is the course of the Inferior Sagittal Sinus?

• runs in the inferior border of the falx and drains into the straight sinus

31

What are the tributaries to the Inferior Sagittal Sinus?

• receives blood from the falx, corpus callosum, and medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere

32

What is the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen?

• not a sinus but an important vein that lies near the pineal gland and joins the inferior sagittal sinus to form the straight sinus

33

What are the tributaries to the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen?

• receives blood from the base of the brain and deep brain structures

34

What is the course of the Straight Sinus? What forms the Straight Sinus?

• runs in the midline of the tentorium at the attachment of the falx and drains into the transverse sinus
• formed by and receives blood from the straight sinus and the Vein of Galen

35

What is the course of the Transverse Sinus?

• runs laterally in the occipital region toward the base of the mastoid process

36

What are the tributaries of the Transverse Sinus?

• receives blood from the…
• superior sagittal and straight sinuses
• the Vein of Labbe
• adjacent occipital and cerebellar regions

37

What is the course of the Sigmoid Sinus?

• continuation of the transverse sinus in the mastoid, becomes the internal jugular vein at the skull base

38

What is the Cavernous Sinus?

• lies lateral to the pituitary gland
• composed of multiple channels

39

What vessels and nerves pass through the Cavernous Sinus?


• internal carotid artery
• cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2, and VI
• Sympathetic nerves following the internal carotid

40

What are the tributaries to the Cavernous Sinus? What are the anastamoses?

• receives blood from orbit, pituitary, temporal lobe, and Superficial Middle Cerebral Vein
• connected to the posterior sinuses via the Superior Petrosal Sinus which enters at the transverse/sigmoid junction,
• connected to the the Inferior Petrosal Sinus which enters at the sigmoid/internal jugular junction