Jonathan and Spencer's Topography - Sheet1 Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience Quiz 1 > Jonathan and Spencer's Topography - Sheet1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Jonathan and Spencer's Topography - Sheet1 Deck (81):
1

structure

anatomy/function

2

dorsolateral/ventrolateral sulci

point of entry of dorsal roots; exit of ventral roots

3

anterior median sulcus

anterior spinal artery is found here; contains a double fold of pia mater, and its floor is formed by a transverse band of white substance, the anterior white commissure, which is perforated by blood vessels on their way to or from the central part of the medulla spinalis.

4

dorsal median sulcus

is a narrow groove; and exists only in the closed part of the medulla oblongata; it becomes gradually shallower from below upward, and ends about the middle of the medulla oblongata, where the central canal expands into the cavity of the fourth ventricle.

5

dorsal intermediate sulcus

cervical region; groove in middle of dorsal columns

6

3 regions of spinal cord

dorsal, lateral, anterior funiculi

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dorsal columns

ascending track; the area of white matter in the dorsomedial side of the spinal cord. It is made up of the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus and itself is part of the dorsal funiculus. It is part of an ascending pathway that is important for well-localized fine touch and conscious proprioception called the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway.

8

posterior intermediate sulcus

divides legs and arms track in dorsal columns

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folia

small folds in cerebellum

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primary fissure

separates folia of anterior lobe from posterior lobe of cerebellum

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vermis

medial part of cerebellum

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hemispheres of cerebellum

lateral part of cerebellum

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flocculus

antero-inferior lobes of cerebellum; a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle; It is associated with the nodulus of the vermis; together, these two structures compose the vestibular part of the cerebellum.

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inferior cerebellar peduncle

provide input/output from cerebellum; connects cerebellum to dorsolateral side of medulla; appears as upward continuation from the spinal cord; Important fibers running through the inferior cerebellar peduncle include the spinocerebellar tract and axons from the inferior olivary nucleus, among others.

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middle cerebellar peduncle

connects pons to cerebellum; large bulge in lateral side of brainstem

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superior cerebellar peduncles

conenct cerebellum to midbrain

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basal pons

divides medulla and midbrain: Infarction in this region can impair motor functioning.
The basis pontis undergoes demyelination in the condition known as central pontine myelinolysis. This condition is due to the rapid intravenous correction of hyponatremia.

18

gracile tubercle

superior ends of dorsal columns, A visible bump covering the gracile nucleus, which participate in the sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the lower body (legs and trunk). It contains second-order neurons, which receive inputs from sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and send axons that synapse in the thalamus.

19

tuber cinerium

small prominence on sides of medulla; marks trigeminal nerve fibers descending lateral brainstem (note: wiki has this as something totally different: hollow eminence between the mamillary bodies and the optic chiasm)

20

inferior olivary nucleus

large prominence on ventral-lateral part of medulla; The inferior olivary nucleus is the largest nucleus situated in the olivary body, part of the medulla oblongata. involved in control and coordination of movements,[1] sensory processing and cognitive tasks likely by encoding the timing of sensory input independently of attention or awareness .[2][3] [4] Lesions to the inferior olive have been associated with a decreased ability to perfect highly specialized motor tasks, such as improving one's accuracy in hitting a target with a ball.[5] There is some evidence that it is stimulated by ghrelin.[6]

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post/preolivary sulcus

grooves on dorsal/ventral side of inferior olive

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hypoglossal nerve leaves brain from where?

leaves brain from preolivary sulcus

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glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves leaves brain from where?

leave brain from postolivary sulcus

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medullary pyramid

two long cords running on ventral side of brainstem; cerebral cortex nerve fibers used for fine/skilled motor movements

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pyramidal decussation

site where most of pyramidal nerve fibers cross; defines cervical-medullary junction

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4th ventricle

diamond shaped; dorsal aspect of brainstem; begins at beginning of medulla and covers rostral medulla and pons

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obex

caudal point of 4th ventricle; central canal of spinal cord opens into ventricular system

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stria medullaris

crosses floor of 4th ventricle; defines division between medulla and pons

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sulcus limitans

lateral groove on floor of 4th ventricle

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hypoglossal trigone

medial to suclus limitans in medulla

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vagus trigone

lateral to sulcus limitans in medulla

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facial colliculus

medial in medulla; contains facial nerve and abducens nucleus

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vestiblar trigone

lateral in medulla

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medial to lateral nerves of pontine-medullary junction

6/7/08

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acoustic tubercle

vestibulocochlear nerve bulge

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trigeminal nerve

passes through middle cerebellar peduncle

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cerebral peduncles

bands on either side of midbrain; contain most nerve fibers leaving cerebral cortex heading for brainstem or spinal cord; injury can be devastating

38

interpeduncular fossa

depression between cerebral peduncles; oculomotor nerve eminates from this fossa

39

corpora quadragemina

four bumps on dorsal surface of midbrain

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inferior colliculi

two caudal bumps of corpora quadragemina; deal with hearing

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superior colliculi

two rostral bumps of corpora quadragemina; eye responses to visual signals and loud sounds

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tectum

superior + inferior colliculi

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brachium of inferior colliculi

ridge running caudally to medial geniculate nucleus

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brachium of superior colliculi

ridge running to lateral geniculate nucleus

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diencephalon

rostral to midbrain; consists of hypothalamus, (dorsal) thalamus, epithalamus; walls of 3rd ventricle

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portions of hypothalamus

mamillary bodies, infundibulum, lamina terminalis

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stalk of pituitary gland

infundibulum and lamina terminalis extension to pituitary gland

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median eminence/tuber cinerium

bump on infundibulum critical for neuroendocrine control

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optic chiasm

rostral to infundibulum; nerve fibers from eye cross here

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epithalamus

dorsal side of diencephalon; contains pineal gland in midline and habenular nuclei

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3rd venticle

diencephalon = walls;

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hypothalamic sulcus

groove from A to P along wall of 3rd ventricle

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hypothalamus

ventral to hypothalamic suclus

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dorsal thalamus

walls of 3rd ventricle,

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massa intermedia/thalamic adhesion

between two thalami

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stria medullaris thalami

ridge from A to P along dorsal side of thalamus; from habenular nuclei

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thalamus

nuclei that are relay sites for cerebral cortex inputs for most general sensations

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medial geniculate bodies

chief relay site of auditory information to cerebral cortex

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lateral geniculate bodies

chief relay site of visual information to cerebral cortex

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telencephalon

newest portion; cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia

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cerebral cortex

R and L hemispheres; 4 lobes

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Sylvian (lateral) fissure

divides cerebral cortex lobes

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central sulcus

divides cerebral cortex lobes

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parietal-occipital sulcus

divides cerebral cortex lobes

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frontal lobes

anterior to central sulcus

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temporal lobe

ventral to lateral fissure

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parietal lobe

between frontal and occipital lobes

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precentral gyrus

anterior to central sulcus; neurons directed to spinal cord for movement

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postcentral gyrus

posterior to central sulcus; termination of somatic sensory fibers coming from the thalamus; stimulation would cause certain sensations projected onto face

70

transverse gyri

superior aspect of temporal lobe to depths of lateral fissure

71

insula

superior aspect of temporal lobe to depths of lateral fissure

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calcarine sulcus

from posterior occipital to parietal-occipital sulcus

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corpus callosum

medial; commisural connections from one side of brain to other

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rostrum

rostral portion of corpus callosum

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splenium

posterior portion of corpus callosum

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cingulate gyrus

follows corpus callosum

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subcallosal region

ventral to rostrum

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septum pellucidum

separates two lateral ventricles

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fornix

inferior portion of septum pellucidum; follows lateral ventricle posterior and lateral into temporal lobe

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anterior commissure

dorsal/rostral to hypothalamus; connects two sides of brain

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interventricular foramen of Monroe

lets CSF travel from lateral ventricle to enter 3rd ventricle