Spencer's gross neuroanatomy structures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spencer's gross neuroanatomy structures Deck (81):
1

structure

anatomy/function

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dorsolateral/ventrolateral sulci

point of entry of dorsal roots; exit of ventral roots

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anterior median sulcus

anterior spinal artery

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dorsal median sulcus

very shallow; dorsal columns of spinal cord between this and dorsolateral sulcus

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dorsal intermediate sulcus

cervical region; groove in middle of dorsal columns

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3 regions of spinal cord

dorsal, lateral, anterior funiculi

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dorsal columns

ascending track; legs medial and arms lateral (like in an actal person)

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posterior intermediate sulcus

divides legs and arms track in dorsal columns

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folia

small folds in cerebellum

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primary fissure

separates folia of anterior lobe from posterior lobe of cerebellum

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vermis

medial part of cerebellum

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hemispheres of cerebellum

lateral part of cerebellum

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flocculus

antero-inferior lobes of cerebellum

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inferior cerebellar peduncle

provide input/output from cerebellum; connects cerebellum to dorsolateral side of medulla; appears as upward continuation from the spinal cord

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middle cerebellar peduncle

connects pons to cerebellum; large bulge in lateral side of brainstem

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superior cerebellar peduncles

conenct cerebellum to midbrain

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basal pons

divides medulla and midbrain

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gracile tubercle

superior ends of dorsal columns, protuberances over nuclei associated with ascending columns

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tuber cinerium

small prominence on sides of medulla; marks trigeminal nerve fibers descending lateral brainstem

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inferior olivary nucleus

large prominence on ventral-lateral part of medulla

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post/preolivary sulcus

grooves on dorsal/ventral side of inferior olive

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hypoglossal nerve

leaves brain from preolivary sulcus

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glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves

leave brain from postolivary sulcus

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medullary pyramid

two long cords running on ventral side of brainstem; cerebral cortex nerve fibers used for fine/skilled motor movements

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pyramidal decussation

site where most of pyramidal nerve fibers cross; defines cervical-medullary junction

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4th ventricle

diamond shaped; dorsal aspect of brainstem; begins at beginning of medulla and covers rostral medulla and pons

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obex

caudal point of 4th ventricle; central canal of spinal cord opens into ventricular system

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stria medullaris

crosses floor of 4th ventricle; defines division between medulla and pons

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sulcus limitans

lateral groove on floor of 4th ventricle

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hypoglossal trigone

medial to suclus limitans in medulla

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vagus trigone

lateral to sulcus limitans in medulla

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facial colliculus

medial in medulla; contains facial nerve and abducens nucleus

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vestiblar trigone

lateral in medulla

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medial to lateral nerves of pontine-medullary junction

6, 7, 8

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acoustic tubercle

vestibulocochlear nerve bulge

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trigeminal nerve

passes through middle cerebellar peduncle

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cerebral peduncles

bands on either side of midbrain; contain most nerve fibers leaving cerebral cortex heading for brainstem or spinal cord; injury can be devastating

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interpeduncular fossa

depression between cerebral peduncles; oculomotor nerve eminates from this fossa

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corpora quadragemina

four bumps on dorsal surface of midbrain

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inferior colliculi

two caudal bumps of corpora quadragemina; deal with hearing

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superior colliculi

two rostral bumps of corpora quadragemina; eye responses to visual signals and loud sounds

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tectum

superior + inferior colliculi

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brachium of inferior colliculi

ridge running caudally to medial geniculate nucleus

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brachium of superior colliculi

ridge running to lateral geniculate nucleus

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diencephalon

rostral to midbrain; consists of hypothalamus, (dorsal) thalamus, epithalamus; walls of 3rd ventricle

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portions of hypothalamus

mamillary bodies, infundibulum, lamina terminalis

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stalk of pituitary gland

infundibulum and lamina terminalis extension to pituitary gland

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median eminence/tuber cinerium

bump on infundibulum critical for neuroendocrine control

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optic chiasm

rostral to infundibulum; nerve fibers from eye cross here

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epithalamus

dorsal side of diencephalon; contains pineal gland in midline and habenular nuclei

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3rd venticle

diencephalon = walls;

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hypothalamic sulcus

groove from A to P along wall of 3rd ventricle

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hypothalamus

ventral to hypothalamic suclus

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dorsal thalamus

walls of 3rd ventricle,

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massa intermedia/thalamic adhesion

between two thalami

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stria medullaris thalami

ridge from A to P along dorsal side of thalamus; from habenular nuclei

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thalamus

nuclei that are relay sites for cerebral cortex inputs for most general sensations

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medial geniculate bodies

chief relay site of auditory information to cerebral cortex

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lateral geniculate bodies

chief relay site of visual information to cerebral cortex

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telencephalon

newest portion; cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia

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cerebral cortex

R and L hemispheres; 4 lobes

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Sylvian (lateral) fissure

divides cerebral cortex lobes

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central sulcus

divides cerebral cortex lobes

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parietal-occipital sulcus

divides cerebral cortex lobes

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frontal lobes

anterior to central sulcus

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temporal lobe

ventral to lateral fissure

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parietal lobe

between frontal and occipital lobes

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precentral gyrus

anterior to central sulcus; neurons directed to spinal cord for movement

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postcentral gyrus

posterior to central sulcus; termination of somatic sensory fibers coming from the thalamus; stimulation would cause certain sensations projected onto face

70

transverse gyri

superior aspect of temporal lobe to depths of lateral fissure

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insula

superior aspect of temporal lobe to depths of lateral fissure

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calcarine sulcus

from posterior occipital to parietal-occipital sulcus

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corpus callosum

medial; commisural connections from one side of brain to other

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rostrum

rostral portion of corpus callosum

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splenium

posterior portion of corpus callosum

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cingulate gyrus

follows corpus callosum

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subcallosal region

ventral to rostrum

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septum pellucidum

separates two lateral ventricles

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fornix

inferior portion of septum pellucidum; follows lateral ventricle posterior and lateral into temporal lobe

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anterior commissure

dorsal/rostral to hypothalamus; connects two sides of brain

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interventricular foramen of Monroe

lets CSF travel from lateral ventricle to enter 3rd ventricle