Flashcards in (1/13/15) Intro to Bacterial Infection and Surface Structures (Bailey) Deck (79):
_____ infections are the most common reason individuals seek treatment from infectious diseases
invasion of the body by a microbe that causes damage either directly or indirectly
What are the 6 steps in the infectious disease process?
3. colonization and/or invasion
4. multiplication and/or spread
Does having an encounter mean that there is an infection?
pathogens must enter the ____ in order to establish infection
(this does not include pathogens that are in the GI, respiratory, or reproductive tracts as they are still technically outside of the body)
pathogens must first ____ a surface before causing disease
what are the two types of pathogen adherence?
1. nonspecific adherence
2. specific adherence
which type of adherence is reversible and includes docking and other examples such as brownian movement (random interactions), electrostatic attractions, and interactions with extracellular matrices?
which type of adherence is irreversible and includes anchoring using adhesins
substances on the surface of microbes that are involved with specific adherence to host tissue
_____ are often found on the fimbrae (pili), but can also be found in capsules or cell surfaces
in order to colonize, the pathogen must be adapted for _____ in a given ____
what are the three ways in which bacteria "take-up" nutrients?
1. carrier mediated diffusion
2. phosphorylation-linked transport (group translocation)
3. active transport (energy dependent)
way of bacteria taking-up nutrients in which phosphorylation occurs after it is already inside
carrier mediated diffusion
way of bacteria taking-up nutrients in which phosphorylation happens as it is being transported
to invade a host, pathogens must have specific _____ factors
mechanism of spread that involves microbes multiplying then spreading
mechanism of spread that involves microbes spreading then multiplying
disease symptoms are often dependent upon pathogen ______
activity that recognize host cells that are infected and induces apoptosis to stop the spread
cytotoxic T cell activity
what are the two types of host response to an infection?
2. cytotoxic T cell activity
what are the 3 types of infectious organisms?
1. lytic viral infections
2. invasins damage host tissue
3. toxin producing microbes
what are the two types of toxins?
type of toxin that is naturally found on the surface of the microbe and is a component of the cell wall. also known as lipopolysaccharide
type of toxin that are subtle substances secreted into host tissues
type of EXOtoxin that lyse cells
type of EXOtoxin that affect intestinal cells
type of EXOtoxin that affects neurons
the body contains approximately _____ more microbes as host cells
what 2 places does the body safely harbor bacteria?
1. GI tract
what are the 4 requirements that make a microbe a pathogen?
1. ability to adhere to host
2. ability to colonize the host
3. ability to replicate within a given niche
4. ability to cause damage (invasion, produce toxin, activate immune system)
no microorganism is intrinsically _____ or ______
must have oxygen to grow
cannot tolerate oxygen
can grow with or without oxygen
(most medically important)
can grow with limited nutrients
what is the most medically important bacteria?
can grow in high sugar concentrations
can grow in high salt concentrations
can grow in very dry conditions
can grow in low pH
can grow in high pH
require some oxygen, but lower levels of oxygen
grow well in cold environments (around 20 degrees C)
grow well in really cold environments (0-15 degrees C)
grow well in hot temperatures (45-80 C)
grow well in mild temperatures (15-45 C)
another term for murein
in murein, cross-linked peptide bonds ALWAYS occur between _______
the structure of murein is alternating blocks of ______ and ______
______ is only found in gram negative bacteria
_____ ____ is only found in gram positive bacteria
________ is teichoic acid that is bound to lipids
what are the three components of LPS?
1. Lipid A
2. polysaccharide core
part of LPS that involves fatty acids attached to a phosphorylated disaccharide
part of LPS that is very similar between gram negative bacteria, but has sugars that are unique to bacteria
part of LPS that has highly variable repeating sugar subunits and is the main reason for the different antigenic specificities among gram negative bacteria
LPS and teichoic acid are examples of _____ _____ ______ ______
pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
cells of the immune system can recognize PAMPs using _____ ____ _____
pattern recognition receptors (PRRS)
toll-like receptor ______ recognizes LPS
toll-like receptor _____ recognizes peptidoglycan
toll-like receptors ____ and _____ together recognize teichoic acids
2 and 6
involved in the attachment of bacteria to cells and other surfaces
specialized proteins that are more SPECIFICALLY developed for adherence
adhesins (on tip of fimbriae)
transfer genetic information between microbes
has one flagella at pole
has a few flagella at pole
has many flagella all over
fimbriae and flagella must turn ________ in order for the microbe to move forward
when movement caused by flagella is directed
bacteria with flagella
_____ can be directed towards something good or away from something bad
taxis towards chemoattractant
taxis towards suitable oxygen environment
taxis towards suitable osmotic pressure environment
taxis towards suitable temperature environment
a substance that surrounds a cell that is either firmly attached (_____) or is not well organized (_____)
why would capsules be beneficial to pathogens?
-if you were to strip off the capsule they could no longer spread disease
-capsule protects them from the immune system