(1/13/15) Intro to Bacterial Infection and Surface Structures (Bailey) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (1/13/15) Intro to Bacterial Infection and Surface Structures (Bailey) Deck (79):
1

_____ infections are the most common reason individuals seek treatment from infectious diseases

Oral

2

invasion of the body by a microbe that causes damage either directly or indirectly

infection

3

What are the 6 steps in the infectious disease process?

1. encounter
2. entry
3. colonization and/or invasion
4. multiplication and/or spread
5. damage
6. outcome

4

Does having an encounter mean that there is an infection?

No

5

pathogens must enter the ____ in order to establish infection

body

(this does not include pathogens that are in the GI, respiratory, or reproductive tracts as they are still technically outside of the body)

6

pathogens must first ____ a surface before causing disease

colonize

7

what are the two types of pathogen adherence?

1. nonspecific adherence
2. specific adherence

8

which type of adherence is reversible and includes docking and other examples such as brownian movement (random interactions), electrostatic attractions, and interactions with extracellular matrices?

nonspecific adherence

9

which type of adherence is irreversible and includes anchoring using adhesins

specific adherence

10

substances on the surface of microbes that are involved with specific adherence to host tissue

adhesins

11

_____ are often found on the fimbrae (pili), but can also be found in capsules or cell surfaces

adhesins

12

in order to colonize, the pathogen must be adapted for _____ in a given ____

-growth
-niche

13

what are the three ways in which bacteria "take-up" nutrients?

1. carrier mediated diffusion
2. phosphorylation-linked transport (group translocation)
3. active transport (energy dependent)

14

way of bacteria taking-up nutrients in which phosphorylation occurs after it is already inside

carrier mediated diffusion

15

way of bacteria taking-up nutrients in which phosphorylation happens as it is being transported

phosphorylation-linked transport

16

to invade a host, pathogens must have specific _____ factors

virulence (invasins)

17

mechanism of spread that involves microbes multiplying then spreading

lateral propagation

18

mechanism of spread that involves microbes spreading then multiplying

dissemination

19

disease symptoms are often dependent upon pathogen ______

density (load)

20

activity that recognize host cells that are infected and induces apoptosis to stop the spread

cytotoxic T cell activity

21

what are the two types of host response to an infection?

1. phagocytes
2. cytotoxic T cell activity

22

what are the 3 types of infectious organisms?

1. lytic viral infections
2. invasins damage host tissue
3. toxin producing microbes

23

what are the two types of toxins?

1. endotoxins
2. exotoxins

24

type of toxin that is naturally found on the surface of the microbe and is a component of the cell wall. also known as lipopolysaccharide

endotoxin

25

type of toxin that are subtle substances secreted into host tissues

exotoxins

26

type of EXOtoxin that lyse cells

cytotoxins

27

type of EXOtoxin that affect intestinal cells

enterotoxins

28

type of EXOtoxin that affects neurons

neuotoxins

29

the body contains approximately _____ more microbes as host cells

10 times

30

what 2 places does the body safely harbor bacteria?

1. GI tract
2. Mouth

31

what are the 4 requirements that make a microbe a pathogen?

1. ability to adhere to host
2. ability to colonize the host
3. ability to replicate within a given niche
4. ability to cause damage (invasion, produce toxin, activate immune system)

32

no microorganism is intrinsically _____ or ______

-benign
-pathogenic

33

must have oxygen to grow

strict aerobes

34

cannot tolerate oxygen

obligate anaerobes

35

can grow with or without oxygen

facultative anaerobes
(most medically important)

36

can grow with limited nutrients

oligotrophs

37

what is the most medically important bacteria?

facultative anaerobes

38

can grow in high sugar concentrations

osmophile

39

can grow in high salt concentrations

halophile

40

can grow in very dry conditions

xerophile

41

can grow in low pH

acidophile

42

can grow in high pH

alkaliphiles

43

require some oxygen, but lower levels of oxygen

microaerophiles

44

grow well in cold environments (around 20 degrees C)

psychotrophs

45

grow well in really cold environments (0-15 degrees C)

psychophiles

46

grow well in hot temperatures (45-80 C)

thermophiles

47

grow well in mild temperatures (15-45 C)

mesophiles

48

another term for murein

peptidoglycan

49

in murein, cross-linked peptide bonds ALWAYS occur between _______

N-acetylmuramic acids

50

the structure of murein is alternating blocks of ______ and ______

-N-acetylmuramic acid
-N-acetylglucosamine

51

______ is only found in gram negative bacteria

lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

52

_____ ____ is only found in gram positive bacteria

teichoic acid

53

________ is teichoic acid that is bound to lipids

lipotoeichoic acid

54

what are the three components of LPS?

1. Lipid A
2. polysaccharide core
3. O-antigen

55

part of LPS that involves fatty acids attached to a phosphorylated disaccharide

lipid A

56

part of LPS that is very similar between gram negative bacteria, but has sugars that are unique to bacteria

polysaccharide core

57

part of LPS that has highly variable repeating sugar subunits and is the main reason for the different antigenic specificities among gram negative bacteria

O-antigen

58

LPS and teichoic acid are examples of _____ _____ ______ ______

pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

59

cells of the immune system can recognize PAMPs using _____ ____ _____

pattern recognition receptors (PRRS)

60

toll-like receptor ______ recognizes LPS

4

61

toll-like receptor _____ recognizes peptidoglycan

2

62

toll-like receptors ____ and _____ together recognize teichoic acids

2 and 6

63

involved in the attachment of bacteria to cells and other surfaces

pili (fimbriae)

64

specialized proteins that are more SPECIFICALLY developed for adherence

adhesins (on tip of fimbriae)

65

transfer genetic information between microbes

sex pili

66

has one flagella at pole

monotrichous

67

has a few flagella at pole

lophotrichous

68

has many flagella all over

peritrichous

69

fimbriae and flagella must turn ________ in order for the microbe to move forward

counterclockwise

70

when movement caused by flagella is directed

taxis

71

bacteria with flagella

motile

72

_____ can be directed towards something good or away from something bad

taxis

73

taxis towards chemoattractant

chemotaxis

74

taxis towards suitable oxygen environment

aerotaxis

75

taxis towards suitable osmotic pressure environment

osmotaxis

76

taxis towards suitable temperature environment

themotaxis

77

a substance that surrounds a cell that is either firmly attached (_____) or is not well organized (_____)

glycocalyx
-capsule
-slime layer

78

why would capsules be beneficial to pathogens?

-if you were to strip off the capsule they could no longer spread disease
-capsule protects them from the immune system

79

toll-like receptor _____ recognize flagella

5