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Flashcards in Leyes study guide Deck (18):
1

DNA that enters a bacterial cell can be _____, integrated into the host ______, or integrated into a _____ (extrachromosomal element

-degraded
-chromosome
-plasmid

2

______ _____, or restriction enzymes, are used by bacteria to _____ foreign DNA

-Resriction endonucleases
-degrade

3

______ is the uptake of naked DNA by "_____ ____"

-transformation
-"competent cells"

4

______ is the transfer of DNA between bacteria through a ______

-transduction
-virus

5

______ is transfer of DNA through cell to cell contact using a ____ ____

-conjugation
-sex pilus

6

mutations in DNA can cause ______ resistance. ______ can be the result of base changes, deletions, insertions, duplications, or rearrangements. ______ are less likely to cause antibiotic resistance

-antibiotic
-mutations
-deletions

7

different bacteria occupy different environmental _____ in the oral cavity. sub gingival bacteria are generally ______. supra gingival bacterial are generally ______.

-niches
-proteolitic
-saccrolitic

8

factors that promote ______ in the oral cavity include adherence properties, synergistic bacteria, nutritional substrates, temperature, and moisture content

colonization

9

factors that inhibit colonization in the oral cavity include what three things?

-antimicrobial properties of saliva
-mechanical shearing
-antagonistic bacteria

10

there are MANY bacteria that are associated with _______, while there are FEWER species associated with ______ _____

-periodontitis
-periodontal health

11

shifts in microbial composition occur in ______, however no _____ is found in all patients with periodontitis and never found in _____ subjects

-periodontitis
-bacterium
-healthy

12

the tissue destruction that occurs during periodontitis is mainly the result of a _____ _____

host response

13

there is a small shift from gram _____ to gram _____ during periodontitis

-positive
-negative

14

the complexity of the ____ _____ increases during periodontal disease

microbial community

15

there is a slight shift to more ______ _____ in periodontitis

uncultivated bacteria

16

microbial _____ declines in caries

diversity

17

there is a progression of ____ _____ as caries progresses

dominant species

18

each location in the oral cavity has its own associated _____ _____. however there is _____ of the species

-microbial composition
-overlap