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superantigen exotoxins are secreted by

1. streptococcus pyogenes
2. staphylococcus aureus


superantigens function by

cross linking the alpha chain of MHC2 on the APC with the variable region of the B-chain of T cell receptors on CD4 Th cells.

This creates polyclonal T cell activation, leading to increased I-2 and IFN-y.

The resulting release activates m0 and promotes the release of proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1, IL-6, TNFa


Staphylococcus arues superantigen exotoxins

1. TSST--Toxic shock syndrome is responsible for TSS
2. enterotoxin is food poisoning


Streptococcus pyogenes

1. SpeA is TSLC (toxic shock like syndrome) and the rash in scarlet fever
2. SpeB is necrotizing fascitis
3. SpeA,B,C are scarlet fever


lab values in rickets

1. decreased 25(OH) vitamin d
2. decreased ca
3. decreased phosphate
4. increased alkaline phosphatase
5. increased PTH


treat nocardia



legionnaire's disease treatment

macrolides and respiratory tract: fluoroquinolones