Flashcards in 1 Deck (21)
What leakage enzymes can be measured in the blood indicating muscle disease?
- Creatinine kinase
- Asparate amino transferase
- lactate dehydrogenase
- Alanine aminotransferase
What colour would muscle with eosinophilic inflammation be?
What are some causes of atrophy?
Denervation - common, rapid and marked. eg. equine laryngeal hemiplasia
Disuse eg severe lameness
Malnutrition and cahexia
What causes white muscle disease?
Selenium and vitamin E deficiency
What toxins can cause myopathies?
Ionophores in horses, plant toxins such as gossypol
What is malignant hyperthermia?
"Porcine stress syndrome"
unregulated Ca++ release = contraction
triggered by halothane/stress
high body temp = fatal
soft, pale, exudative pork
Why the hyperadrencorticoid/hypothyroid dogs have pot bellies?
Abdominal muscle atropy
How does botulism cause paralysis?
irreversible Ach release blockage
How does Ixodes holocyclus cause paralysis?
reversibly blocks Ach release
Antitoxin very effective
What is Myasthenia gravis?
Immune mediated inactivation of Ach receptors
What is osteopaenia?
Decrease bone density
increased resorption, decreased bone formation
What is osteosclerosis?
Increased bone density
response to increased mechanical stress
What is pannus?
fibrovascular tissue, may fuse joints (ankylosis)
What is osteochondrosis?
A failure/delay in endochondral ossification and retention of cartilage (especially cores). Caused by lesions in growth cartilage in young animals and is common in animals bred and fed to grow quickly. May cause secondary haemorrhage and necrosis.
What is osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD)?
Secondary to osteochondrosis where the retained cartilage becomes a flap and possibly breaks off. It is often painful, non-healing and develops into degenerative joint disease.
What is cervical vertebral myelopathy? What are the two types
Stenosis of cervical vertebrae causing compression of the spinal chord and "wobbler" syndrome
Static = always present, Dynamic = present upon flexion
What is hip dysplasia?
Shallow acetablulae causing instability of the hip joint and chronic subluxation (partial dislocation). Often progresses to severe secondary degenerative joint disease. Especially large breed dogs.
What is osteopetrosis?
Failure of osteoclasts to reabsorb and shape primary trabeculae leading to increased bone density (osteosclerosis) and no medullary cavity
What is osteogensis imperfecta?
A genetic defect in collagen production causing a decrease in bone density (osteopaenia)
What causes fibrous osteodystrophy?
hyperparathyroidism causes increased resorption of Ca++ from the bone and the bone mass is replaced by fibrous tissue. Maybe primary, secondary nutrition or secondary renal.