1 Flashcards Preview

Veterinary Musculoskeletal Pathology > 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1 Deck (21)
Loading flashcards...
1

What leakage enzymes can be measured in the blood indicating muscle disease?

- Creatinine kinase
- Asparate amino transferase
- lactate dehydrogenase
- Alanine aminotransferase

2

What colour would muscle with eosinophilic inflammation be?

Green

3

What are some causes of atrophy?

Denervation - common, rapid and marked. eg. equine laryngeal hemiplasia
Disuse eg severe lameness
Malnutrition and cahexia
endocrine disorders
Congenital

4

What causes white muscle disease?

Selenium and vitamin E deficiency

5

What toxins can cause myopathies?

Ionophores in horses, plant toxins such as gossypol

6

What is malignant hyperthermia?

"Porcine stress syndrome"
unregulated Ca++ release = contraction
triggered by halothane/stress
high body temp = fatal
soft, pale, exudative pork

7

Why the hyperadrencorticoid/hypothyroid dogs have pot bellies?

Abdominal muscle atropy

8

How does botulism cause paralysis?

irreversible Ach release blockage

9

How does Ixodes holocyclus cause paralysis?

reversibly blocks Ach release
Antitoxin very effective

10

What is Myasthenia gravis?

Immune mediated inactivation of Ach receptors

11

What is osteopaenia?

Decrease bone density
increased resorption, decreased bone formation

12

What is osteosclerosis?

Increased bone density
response to increased mechanical stress

13

What is pannus?

fibrovascular tissue, may fuse joints (ankylosis)

14

What is osteochondrosis?

A failure/delay in endochondral ossification and retention of cartilage (especially cores). Caused by lesions in growth cartilage in young animals and is common in animals bred and fed to grow quickly. May cause secondary haemorrhage and necrosis.

15

What is osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD)?

Secondary to osteochondrosis where the retained cartilage becomes a flap and possibly breaks off. It is often painful, non-healing and develops into degenerative joint disease.

16

What is cervical vertebral myelopathy? What are the two types

Stenosis of cervical vertebrae causing compression of the spinal chord and "wobbler" syndrome
Static = always present, Dynamic = present upon flexion

17

What is hip dysplasia?

Shallow acetablulae causing instability of the hip joint and chronic subluxation (partial dislocation). Often progresses to severe secondary degenerative joint disease. Especially large breed dogs.

18

What is osteopetrosis?

Failure of osteoclasts to reabsorb and shape primary trabeculae leading to increased bone density (osteosclerosis) and no medullary cavity

19

What is osteogensis imperfecta?

A genetic defect in collagen production causing a decrease in bone density (osteopaenia)

20

What causes fibrous osteodystrophy?

hyperparathyroidism causes increased resorption of Ca++ from the bone and the bone mass is replaced by fibrous tissue. Maybe primary, secondary nutrition or secondary renal.

21

What vitamins can cause problems with bones?

Vitamin D - increased calcium absorption from the GIT hence decreased bone resorption which causes osteosclerosis and soft tissue mineralisation
Vitamin A - Causes premature closure of growth plates. Sweet potatoes and liver are sources.