1-5 B Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

PHYSIOLOGY Exam 1 > 1-5 B Autonomic Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1-5 B Autonomic Nervous System Deck (16):
1

A: Pre-synpatic and POST-synpatic neuronal membranes DO NOT ACTUALLY TOUCH. Space between them = [_______ ______ ]

B: Steps of Synaptic Transmission
1. preSYN membrane ______ because of an ______ ______

2. ______ are packed into vesicles and docked at the preSYN terminal

3. ______ causes [Voltage-Gated __+] to open and ____+ rushes IN to cell to enable fusion of [______ synaptic vesicles] --->allows ______ to get out

4. ______ are then released into [Synaptic Cleft] and diffuse ______ across to POSTSYN membrane to bind to receptors
**[______ ______ don't need receptors to get into POSTSYN cell]**

5A. ACTIVATED Receptors open [ion channel receptor] which is ______ OR open [G-protein-coupled receptor] which is ______--->ion channel activity.
5B: Activation of either of these leads to ______ or ______

6. The Remaining unused ______ diffuse away and are cleared by ______ diffusion, ______ degradation or ACTIVE ______ into preSYN cells.

A: Pre-synpatic and POST-synpatic neuronal membranes DO NOT ACTUALLY TOUCH. Space between them = [Synaptic Cleft ]

B: Steps of Synaptic Transmission
1. preSYN membrane depolarizes because of an Action Potential

2.NTS are packed into vesicles and docked at the preSYN terminal

3. Depolarization causes [Voltage-Gated Ca+] to open and Ca+ rushes IN to cell and causes fusion of [SNARE synaptic vesicles] with preSYN membrane--->allows NTS to get out

4. NTS are then released into [Synaptic Cleft] and diffuse passively across to POSTSYN membrane to bind to receptors
**[Gaseous NTS don't need receptors to get into POSTSYN cell]**

5A. Activated Receptors open [ion channel receptor] which is ionotropic OR open [G-protein-coupled receptor] which is metabotropic--->ion channel activity.
5B: Activation of either of these = EPSP or IPSP {Excitatory or Inhibitory POST-synpatic potential}

6. Remaining unused NTS diffuse away and are cleared by continued diffusion, enzyme degradation or ACTIVE REuptake into preSYN cells.

2

[______ synpatic vesicles] are targets of Bacterial Toxins

Botulinum toxins cause ______ paralysis and autonomic sx by cleaving ______ and disturbing ______ fibers

[SNARE synpatic vesicles] are targets of Bacterial Toxins

1. Botulinum toxins cause Flaccid paralysis and autonomic sx by cleaving SNAREs and disturbing CHOLINERGIC fibers

2. AKA BoTX

3

[______ synpatic vesicles] are targets of Bacterial Toxins

TETANUS toxins cause ______ PARALYSIS since they're only taken up by ______ neurons of the ______ ______. They can also cause ______

[SNARE synpatic vesicles] are targets of Bacterial Toxins

TETANUS toxins cause LETHAL SPASTIC PARALYSIS since they're only taken up by INHIBITORY neurons of the Spinal Cord. They can also cause LockJaw

4

A: The 2 ACh receptors = ______ (slower) and ______ (FaSTeR)

B: When ACTIVATED POSTSYN receptors open ______ channels--->LOCAL ion influx and ______ change in membrane potential that ______[passively/actively] spreads from neuron to axon. THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS AN ______ ______.
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C: Describe EPSP
[______ Post Synaptic Potential] occurs if NTS is Excitatory (______ or ______) and inward ___ with Outward ___ brings membrane potential to 0 after ______.

THIS IS NOT AN ______ ______ but can generate one if strong enough. Purpose of EPSP is to.....

A: The 2 ACh receptors = muscarinic (slower) and NiCoTinic (FaSTeR)

B: When activated POSTSYN receptors open ion channels--->LOCAL ion influx and GRADED change in membrane potential that passively spread thru neuron to axon. THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS AN ACTION POTENTIAL.
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C: Describe EPSP
[Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential] occurs if NTS is Excitatory (Glutamate or ACh) and inward Na+ with Outward K+ brings membrane potential to 0 after depolarization.

THIS IS NOT AN ACTION POTENTIAL but can generate one if strong enough. Purpose of EPSP is to INC chances an AP can actually occur.

5

A: Describe IPSP

[______ post synaptic potential] occurs if NTS is inhibitory (______/spinal cord or ______/BRAIN) and activates ______ & ______ channels which enable ___ to pass! [___- INflux] pushes membrane potential toward [___ natural membrane potential]. This means the push can be ______ or ______.
Either way, membrane potential will be ______ now
--->further away from Action potential threshold----> ______[INC/DEC] chances of Action Potential

B: [___] equilibrium potential = -65 mV

A: Describe IPSP

[inhibitory post synaptic potential] occurs if NTS is inhibitory (glycine/spinal cord or GABA/BRAIN) and activates ionotropic & metabotropic channels which enable Cl- to pass! [Cl- INflux] pushes membrane potential toward [Cl- membrane potential] so can be DEpolarizing or hyperpolarizing.
Either way, membrane potential will be Negative now--->further away from Action potential----> DEC chances of Action Potential

B: [Cl-] equilibrium potential = -65 mV

6

A: Synaptic Integration = Protective mechanisms that allows individual neurons to integrate ______ based on ______ and ______ with axon hillock. This prevents ___________

B: Spatial Summation occurs when ______ which leads to ______ effects on membrane potential at axon hillock!

B2: When a Large EPSP occurs near axons hillock = ______[greater/lesser] impact on POSTSYNAPTIC cell firing Action Potential

C: Temporal Summation occurs when __________---> ______ effects on membrane potential at axon hillock

A: Synaptic Integration = Protective mechanisms that allows individual neurons to integrate EPSP/IPSP based on TIMING and location with axon hillock. This prevents too many AP from getting to hillock too quickly.

B: Spatial Summation = EPSP happening in 2 different places-->addictive effects on membrane potential at axon hillock!
B2: When Large EPSP occurs near axons hillock = greater impact on POSTSYNAPTIC cell firing Action Potential

C: Temporal Summation = 2 EPSP in SAME SPOT occur close enough in Time--->Also additive-->Brings Axons hillock closer to threshold for AP

7

A: Epinephrine in the CNS = ______
Epinephrine in the ANS = ______

B: Major Autonomic NTS= [______ ACh] and [______ NE] but others include... [list 5]


C: [______ NE] is made from ______ and is released ______[Far/Near] Target Organ. It Interacts with ______ OR ______ receptors but is RAPIDLY ReUptaken & degraded by ______ and ______--> (which both are found in ______ & cytosol) = ______ NEUROTRANSMISSION

A: Epinephrine in the CNS = NTS
Epinephrine in the ANS = HORMONE

B: Major Autonomic NTS= [Parasympathetic ACh] and [Sympathetic NE] but others include
*ATP
*NO
*GABA
*5HT
*Glutamate
*Dopamine

C: [Sympathetic NE] is made from Dopa and is released NEAR Target Organ. It Interacts with alpha OR Beta receptors but is RAPIDLY ReUptaken & degraded by MAO and COMT--> (which both are found in mitochondria & cytosol) = ADRENERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION

8

A: ACh is made from ______ which is rich in ___ ____, ______ and soybean. It is inactivated by ______ from ______ and then ReUptaken

B: ______ Gas BLOCKS ______ which prevents ACh degradation---> ______ failure, death from overstimulation, ______ and ______.
B2: Tx =
º______ to block muscarinic receptors
º [______ to recover AChE function],
º scopolamine
º______ for convulsions
º ______ which can't be applied to a mass

A: ACh is made from choline which is rich in egg yolks, liver and soybean. It is inactivated by hydrolysis from [AChE] (acetyl cholinesterase) and ReUptaken

B: Sarin Gas BLOCKS [AChE] preventing ACh degradation--->respiratory failure, death from overstimulation, paralysis and convulsions.
B2: Tx =
ºAtropine to block muscarinic receptors
º [2PAM pralidoxime to recover AChE function],
º scopolamine
ºDiazepam for convulsions
ºRS194B which can't be applied to a mass

9

A: Compare the Types and different between ANS and CNS synpases for
[Neuron-Neuron] vs. [Neuron-Viscera] vs.
[Neuron-SKmuscle]

1. Synaptic Cleft distance
2. POSTSYN receptor type and example
3. NTS effect
4. POSTSYNPATIC potential type

B: what's special about [Neuron-Viscera] interactions?

[Neuron-Neuron]
1. CLOSE
2. NIF-A [Nicotinic Ionotropic Fast- ACh] ex. nAChR
3. DIRECT NTS effect
4. EPSP/IPSP
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[Neuron-Viscera]
1. Variabbly NON-CLOSE and SLOW contact
2. *MCMS* [Muscarinic Cholinergic metaBotropic slow] ex. mAChR, alpha, beta
3. DIRECT OR INDUCES MODULATION ACTIVITY
4. Junctional Potential EJP/IJP
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[Neuron-SKmuscle]
1. CLOSE
2. [Fast Ionotropic] ex. nAChR
3. DIRECT NTS effect
4. EPP (End-Plate Potential)
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B: [Neuron-Viscera] interactions contain "En passant" varicosities which are filled with NTS!

10

Define these terms:
1. Chronotropic

2. INC Conduction Velocity = ______ Conduction Time

3. Digitalis = General term for any [______ ______] OR ______ that ______(INC/DEC) Heart Contraction FORCE

4. Basal Tone

Define these terms:
1. Chronotropic = Anything that affects Pacemaker Rate/Frequency

2. INC Conduction Velocity = DEC Conduction Time

3. Digitalis = General term for any [Cardiotonic Steroid] OR Glycoside that INC Heart Contraction FORCE

4. [Basal Tone] = Resting Level of activity

11

A: In the ANS: ADRENERGIC is associated with
[______ ______] and Cholinergic (______ vs. nicotinic) is associated with [______ ______]
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B: SYMPATHETIC NS is often called the [______ Division] because it's PREganglionic somas are in ______ horns of the ______. (Specifically stretching from __-->___)

B: All of its POSTganglionic fibers secrete ______ OR ______ after their ______ receptors have been simulated by ______

C: POSTganglionic somas are found in either [______ ganglia] (located on each side of SC forming ______ ______) or {______ ganglia} in the Abdomen

A: In the ANS: ADRENERGIC is associated with
[NorEpi SYMPATHETIC] and cholinergic (muscarinic vs. nicotinic) is associated with [ACh ParaSympathetic]
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B: SYMPATHETIC is often called the [Thoracolumbar Division] because it's Preganglionic somas are in lateral horns of thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord and C8. (Specifically T1- L2)

B: All of its POSTganglionic fibers secrete NorEpi OR Epi after their [((NIF)) Nicotinic Ionotropic Fast-acting] receptors have been simulated by ACh

C: POSTganglionic somas are found in either [PARAvertebral ganglia] (located on each side of SC forming sympathetic trunk) or {prevertebral ganglia} in the Abdomen

12

ALL PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS (Sympathetic and ParaSympathetic) SECRETE [______] which acts on Postganglionic fibers to secrete different stuff (______ vs. ______)

B: Sympathetic Preganglionic fibers communicate with ______[Contralateral/Ipsilateral] ganglia. This means ___________
B2: EXCEPTIONS TO THIS RULE INCLUDE THE ______ AND ______ WHICH ARE INNERVATED ______

C: Sympathetic Preganglionic fibers exit and enter ______ nerves so that they can synapse at a {prevertebral ganglion} in the ______. Postganglionic fibers from here then go off to innervate ______!

ALL PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS (Sympathetic and ParaSympathetic) SECRETE [ACh] which acts on Postganglionic fibers to secrete different stuff (ACh vs. NorEpi)

B: Sympathetic Preganglionic fibers communicate with Ipsilateral ganglia = autonomic function is regulated on SAME side of body
B2: EXCEPTIONS = INTESTINE AND PELVIS WHICH ARE INNERVATED BILATERALLY

C: Sympathetic Preganglionic fibers exit and enter Splanchnic nerves so that they can synapse at a {prevertebral ganglion} in the abdomen. Postganglionic fibers from here then go off to innervate Viscera!

13

2 Exceptions of the Sympathetic Nervous System!

A1: Why is the Adrenal medulla such a *special case* with Sympathetics?
Sympathetic PREganglionic axons pass thru ______ nerves as usual BUT THEN ______ . ______ cells in Medulla secrete 80% or our ______ AND 20% of our ______ DIRECTLY into blood.
Sympathetic is typically ______ BUT for Adrenal medulla = ______ activation

A2: Another Sympathetic Exception = ______ Glands because they are activated with ______ which bind to ______ receptors!
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B: How Are Sympathetic Ganglia fused together?
PARAvertebral ganglia have
1- SUP cervical ganglion= (___-___) --> ______ & ______
2- middle cervical ganglion = (___-___) --> ______ & ______
3- Stellate Ganglion = (___-___) --> ______ & ______

2 Exceptions of the Sympathetic Nervous System!

A1: Why is the Adrenal medulla such a *special case* with Sympathetics?
Sympathetic Preganglionic axons pass thru Splanchnic nerves as usual BUT THEN KEEP GOING ALL THE WAY TO THE MEDULLA for synapse. Chromaffin cells in Medulla secrete 80% or our Epi AND 20% of our NorEpi DIRECTLY into blood. Sympathetic is typically Adrenergic BUT for Adrenal medulla = CHOLINERGIC activation

A2: Another Sympathetic Exception = SWEAT Glands because they are activated with ACh which bind to MCMS [Muscarinic Cholinergic metaBotropic slow] receptors!
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B: How Are Sympathetic Ganglia fused together?
PARAvertebral ganglia have
1- SUP cervical ganglion= (C1-C4) --> head & neck
2- middle cervical ganglion = (C5 & C6) -->[Heart & Lungs[
3- Stellate Ganglion = (C7-T1) --->[Heart & Lungs]

14

1. [______ ParaSympathetic] activates ______ receptors in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle AND Glands.

2. Examples of [ ______ ParaSympathetic] ______ receptors:
•M1--> used for ______ ______
•M2--->MORE COMMON ______ ______ receptor
•M3---> ______ ______ receptor
•M4 and M5

3. [Parasympathetic Cholinergic] causes ______[Contraction/Dilation] in general Smooth muscle but in GI it causes ______[Contraction/Dilation] of Smooth Muscle

1. [ACh ParaSympathetic] activates [ ((MCMS)) muscarinic cholinergic metaBotropic slow] receptors in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle AND Glands.

2. Examples of [ParaSympathetic MSMC] receptors:
M1--> used for gastric secretion
M2--->MORE COMMON smooth muscle receptor
M3--->smooth muscle receptor
M4 and M5

3. [Parasympathetic Cholinergic] causes Dilation in general Smooth muscle but in GI it causes CONTRACTION of Smooth Muscle

15

A: Pain Afferents travel thru ______ nerves (like ______ nerve) to Spinal Cord and trigger ______ arcs!
vs.
Other Visceral Afferents all use ______ nerves and are involved in reflexes instead. Example = Baroreceptor

B: Baroreceptor Reflex= afferent fibers in ______ nerve innervate & monitor ______ ______ BP and will send signals to ______ which activates PREganglionic neurons that control ______ and ______. This is a ______ Feedback loop!

C: How does the ______ correct and DEC Arterial BP?
1) ______ sympathetics to heart by withdrawing ______ receptor stimulation

2) ______ sympathetics to vascular m. by withdrawing ______ receptor stimulation

3) ______ sympathetics to [adrenal chromaffin cells]
--->DEC ______, ______ and activation of [PERIPHERAL ______-Adrenergic receptors]

4) ______ PARAsympathetics to heart using [______] receptors


D: All Afferent Fibers typically use ______ as a NTS but may also adjunct this NTS with other neuromodulators like ______ or ______

A: Pain Afferents travel thru Sympathetic nerves (like splanchnic nerve) to Spinal Cord and trigger reflex arcs!
vs.
Other Visceral Afferents all use PARASympathetic nerves and are involved in reflexes instead. Example = Baroreceptor

B: Baroreceptor Reflex= afferent fibers in [CN9 Glossopharyngeal] innervate & monitor Carotid sinus BP and will send signals to [Nucleus of Solitary Tract] which activates PREganglionic neurons that control HR and BP. This is a NEGATIVE Feedback loop!

C: How does the [Nucleus of Solitary Tract] correct and DEC Arterial BP?
1) DEC sympathetics to heart by withdrawing B-Adrenergic receptor stimulation

2) DEC sympathetics to vascular m. by withdrawing alpha-Adrenergic receptor stimulation

3) DEC sympathetics to [adrenal chromaffin cells] --->DEC Epi, NorEpi and activation of [PERIPHERAL alpha/Beta-Adrenergic receptors]

4) INC PARAsympathetics to heart using [MCMS] receptors


D: All Afferent Fibers typically use Glutamate but may also adjunct this with other neuromodulators like Oxytocin or Angiotensin II

16

Autonomic Jobs in the Brain :

1. Pons = ______ & ______

2. Medulla = ______, ______ & ______ intake

3. Hypothalamus = ______

4. Stria terminalis = ______, responses to ______ & ______

Autonomic Jobs in the Brain :

1. Pons = Respiratory & Micturition

2. Medulla = Vasomotor/Vasodilator, Respiratory & Water intake

3. Hypothalamus = TAN HATS (Thirst/[Adenohypophysis ANT Pit] / [Neurohypophysis POST Pit] / Hunger / Autonomics / Temperature / Sexual )

4. Stria terminalis = anxiety, responses to threats & Stress