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Flashcards in #1 Deck (34):
1

Identify the components of the different Nucleic Acids.

Nitrogen base
5 carbon sugar
Phosphate

2

Draw the chemical structure for Deoxyribonucleic Acid nucleotide.

On notes

3

Identify the 3’ Carbon and the 5’ Carbon on the DNA nucleotide.

On nktes

4

Locate the PO43- and the OH- molecules on the nucleotide.

On notes

5

Identify the location of the Nitrogen Base on the nucleotide.

On nktes

6

Draw and explain the difference in chemical structure between RNA and DNA.

RNA has OH & OH
DNA has H & OH

7

Locate Telomeres on a human chromosome.

Ends of the chromosomes

8

Specify the base pairs present in telomeres, and their specific pattern.

5'-T-T-A-G-G-G-3'
3'-A-A-T-C-C-C-5'

9

Chromosomes can have how many telomeres and bp

2500 telomeres & 15000 bp

10

Some telomeres are lost when

On the lagging strand during replication

11

How many telomeres & bp are lost during replication

30-200 bp
5-30 telomeres

12

Once a cell loses enough telomeres,

It can't divide anymore
-about 50 divisions

13

Explain the function of Telomerase and how it is related to aging and tumor proliferation.

Telomerase forms new telomeres & copies in the reverse direction (3'-5')

14

Adult cells don't have what

Active telomerase

15

Cancer cells reactivate what

Telomerase

16

Explain the significance of the Genetic Code; what it is, where it is located, what it does, and
how it contributes to life.

The genetic code is the order of the nitrogen base pairs in DNA

If you change the order of the nitrogen bases & you change the characteristics of an organism

17

DNA is laid down in the

5' to 3' direction

18

The leading strand goes

3' to 5'

19

The lagging strand goes

5' to 3'

20

The lagging strands form what

Okazaki fragements

21

DNA replication

Making more DNA

22

Leading strand starts where

At the origin & moves towards 5'

23

Lagging strand starts at

Replication fork & moves towards origin

24

Dna helicase

Unzips and untwisted DNA for replication

25

The DNA helicase forms what

Replication fork

26

Replication fork is held open by

Bonding proteins

27

Original DNA is the

Template

28

DNA helicase

Breaks hydrogen bonds
Usuable bp are floating in nucleus
Bp match up with template bp
Go in order, building new forms 5' -3'

29

DNA polymerase 3 forms

Hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases to complete the new DNA strand
Proof reads the new DNA strand

30

After h bonds form between

Base
DNA polymerase 3 connects the sugar & phosphate groups to complete the new strand st DNA

31

Lagging strand replication

Helicase still untwists & unzips DNA
Must be replicated starting from replication fork

32

RNA Primer

Short pieces of rna to start replication

33

Okazaki fragements Te connect by

DNA ligase

34

Steps to lagging strand replication

1) rna primate adds rna primers to 5'-3' template at rep. Fork
2) DNA polymerase 3 adds nitrogen bases to the Primer on the 3' end of the rna Primer
RNA Primer & DNA = okazki fragemenrs
Polymerase 3 is replaced with different polymerase (1)
Polymerase 1 removes rna Primer and adds nucleotides