1 - Cells and Organisation Flashcards Preview

Biology > 1 - Cells and Organisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1 - Cells and Organisation Deck (69):
1

Eukaryotic Cells

Have a true nucleus (have a nucleus) and a cell membrane e.g.
Animal + Plant Cell

2

Prokaryotic cells

Have a false nucleus (no nucleus) Genetic material is usually kept freely in cytoplasm and they have no nuclear membrane e.g. Bacterial cells

3

Plasmid

Small ring of DNA usually found in Bacterial Cells

4

Cytoplasm

It Is a jelly like structure where most chemical reactions happen.

5

Nucleus

This controls what a cell does and contains all of the genetic information.

6

Mitochondria

This is where most reactions for aerobic respiration takes place and also cellular respiration (breaking nutrients and turning them into energy).

7

Ribosome

This is where protein synthesis happens.

8

Cell Wall

This gives protection and support to the cell e.g. Plant cell wall is made up of cellulose.

9

Permanent Vacuole

This contains cell sap which is a weak solution of sugar and salts.

10

Chloroplast

Contains chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight during photosynthesis.

11

Diffusion

The random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

12

Xylem Cells

A transport tissue in plants.It carries water and dissolved mineral ions from the root up to the leaves.

13

Phloem cells

Is a transport tissue in plants.It carries dissolved food from the leaves around the plant.

14

Rate of Diffusion

How fast molecules will move from one place to another, the rate depends on the concentration gradient (how many particles there are) the temperature, surface area and the distance.

15

Osmosis

A special type of diffusion that only happens in water molecules it is when particles move from a low concentration (dilute solution) to a high concentration through a partially permeable membrane.

16

Magnification

Multiply the magnification of the eyepiece lens by the magnification of the objective lens e.g. Eyepiece = x4 and Objective = x10 then your overall magnification is: 4x10=x40

17

Active Transport

Allows cells to move substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.This movement is against the concentration gradient.

18

Resolution

Is the ability to distinguish between two separate points in an image and it is the resolving power of a microscope that affects how much detail it can show. E.g. A light microscope has a resolving power of about 200nm.

19

Order of Magnitude

Used to make approximate comparisons between numbers or objects.If one number is about 10 times bigger than another, it is an order of magnitude bigger.You show orders of magnitude using powers of 10.

E.g. A small animal cell has a length of around 10 micrometers.A large plant cell has a length of around 100 micrometers.
100
_________=10
10

So, a large plant cell is an order of magnitude or 10 to the power of 1 bigger than a small animal cell.

20

Nerve cell adaptations

1)Lots of dendrites
2)An axon that carries the nerve impulse from one place to another.
3)Nerve endings or Synapses pass the impulses to another cell or between a nerve cell and a muscle in the body using special transmitter chemicals.

21

Muscle cell adaptations

1)Special proteins that slide over each other making the fibres contract.
2)Contain many mitochondria to transfer the energy needed for the chemical reactions that take place as the cells contract and relax.
3)Store Glycogen, which can be broken down and used in cellular respiration by the mitochondria to transfer the energy needed for fibres to contract.

22

Sperm cell adaptations

1)A long tail whips from side to side to help move the sperm through water or the female reproductive system.
2)Middle section filled with mitochondria, transfers energy needed for tail to work.
3)The acrosome stores digestive enzymes for breaking down the outer layers of the egg.
4)Large nucleus contains genetic information that needs to be passed on.

23

Root hair cells adaptations

1)Increase surface area available for water to move into cell.
2)Large permanent Vacuole that speeds up of water by Osmosis from the soil across the root hair cell.
3)Many mitochondria that transfer energy needed for the active transport of mineral ions into the root hair cell.

24

Turgid

Cell is normal

25

Plasmolysis

A cell becomes plasmolysed when more water is lost via Osmosis, the vacuole and cytoplasm both shrink, and eventually the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall.This is plasmolysis.

26

Lysis

Bursting an animal cell by osmosis.

27

Crenated

Shrinking an animal cell by osmosis

28

Turgor pressure

Turgor pressure makes the cells hard and rigid, which in turn keeps the leaves and stems of the plant rigid and firm.

29

Concentration

Lots of particles

30

Dilute

Low amount of particles.

31

Actual size = Image divided by Magnification

A= I
__

M

32

SA to V Ratio

E.g.Your intestines have more foldings so that the rate of diffusion is quicker.Also the vili in your lungs are made up of a single layer of cells.

33

Cell membrane

This controls what goes in and out of the cell.

34

Interphase

The phase in the life cycle of a cell where in the cell grows in size, replicates its DNA, and prepares for cell division.

35

Gull Bladder

Stores bile before releasing it into the duodenum

36

Bile

A substance produced in the liver. It emulsifies fats to prepare them for digestion.

37

Liver

Produces bile

38

Lipids

Lipids include fats and oils and are found in foods such as butter, olive oil, and crisps. They are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

39

Cloning

The production of identical offspring by asexual reproduction

40

Therapeutic cloning

A process where an embryo is produced that is genetically identical to the patient so then the cells can then be used in medical treatment.

41

Adult stem cells

Stem cells that are found in adults that can differentiate and form a limited number of cells.

42

Cytokinesis

The cell membrane pinches in and eventually divides into two daughter cells.

43

Undifferntated cells

Have the ability to differentiate into another cell.

44

Differentiated cells

Are cells which have turned into other cells.

45

Tissue

A group of specialised cells with a similar structure and function.

46

Organ System

A group of organs that work together to carry out specific functions and form organs.

47

Enzymes

Biological catalysts, usually proteins.

48

Organ

A collection of different tissues working together to carry out specific functions.

49

Active Site

The site on an enzyme where the reactants bind.

50

Substrate Molecules

Fit into the active site. Once bound to the active site, the chemical reaction takes place.

51

Protease

Are enzymes that speed up the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.

52

Lipase

Enzymes that speed up the breakdown of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.

53

Carbohydrase

Enzymes that speed up the breakdown of carbohydrates into simple sugars.

54

Active site

The site on an enzyme where the reactants bind.

55

Blood Plasma

Is the liquid part of the blood and it is yellow in colour.

56

Red blood cells

Are biconcave cells that contain the red pigment haemoglobin and carry oxygen around the body in the blood.

57

White Blood Cells

Are involved in the immune system of the body.
They engulf pathogens and make antibodies and antitoxins.

58

Platelets

Fragments of cells in the blood that play a vital role in the clotting mechanism of the blood.

59

Arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away form the heart. They usually carry oxygenated blood and have a pulse.

60

Veins

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. They usually carry deoxygenated blood and have valves to prevent the back-flow of blood.

61

Capillaries

The smallest blood vessels. They run between individual cells and have a wall that is only one cell thick.

62

Double Circulatory System

The circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs is separate from the circulation of blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

63

Haemoglobin

The red pigment that carries oxygen around the body in the red blood cells.

64

Stent

Is a metal mesh placed in a blocked or partially blocked artery. The are used to open the blood vessel by the inflation of a tiny balloon.

65

Pacemaker

Are electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rhythm.

66

Statins

Reduce cholesterol levels in the blood, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease.

67

Adaptations of the alveoli:

The alveoli provide a very large surface area and a rich supply of blood capillaries. This means gases can diffuse into and out of the blood as efficiently as possible.

68

Inhalation

When you breathe in oxygen-rich air moves into your air.
This maintains a steep concentration gradient in the blood.
As a result, oxygen continually diffuses into your bloodstream through the gas exchange of the alveoli.

69

Exhalation

Breathing out removes carbon dioxide-rich air from the lungs.
This maintains a concentration gradient so carbon dioxide can continually diffuse out of the bloodstream into the air in the lungs.