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Flashcards in Food Nutrients Deck (16):
1

Carbohydrates

Made up of long chains of simple sugars.
e.g. Starch
Functions:
Sugar-Gives us energy
Starch-Gives us energy
Fibre-Prevents constipation
Sources:Bread, fruit + Veg

2

Proteins:

Are made up of long chains of amino acids.
Functions:Growth, repair body tissues, Grow/Make new cells NOT repair them.

3

Lipids (Fats):

Made up of one molecule of Glycerol and 3 attached fatty acids.
Functions:Insulation (keeps us warm), Gives us energy.

4

The Main Food Nutrients are:

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids (fats)
Vitamins
Minerals
Fibre
Water

5

Test For Starch

Add a few drops of Iodine solution, the result should turn the solution from Orange to Blue Black.

6

Test for reducing sugars (e.g) Glucose

First add a few drops of Benedict's solution, next heat gently for approx 10min, solution should turn from blue to brick red colour.

7

Test for proteins

Firstly add a few drops of Biuret A AND Biuret B, next shake the test tube gently, finally it should turn from a blue to a violet colour.

8

Tests for fats

First, add a few drops of Ethanol or Sudan (lll), finally the white precipitate layer should form a red stained oil layer.

9

Zygote

During fertilisation an egg and sperm cell fuse together to create a zygote which has 46 chromosomes.

10

Small intestine

This is where food and nutrients are absorbed.

11

Embryonic Stem Cells

After a zygote is formed that cell divides to become a hollow ball of cells - the embryo.The inner cells of this ball are the embryonic stem cells, that differentiate to form all the specialised cells in your body. Embryonic Stem Cells (from human embryos) and adult stem cells (from adult bone marrow) can be cloned and made to differentiate into many different types of cells.

12

Proteins

Molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and are made up of long chains of amino acids. They are used for building the cells and tissues of the body and to form enzymes.

13

Gene

A gene is a shorter region of DNA that carries the genetic code for a particular characteristic or cell activity.

14

Chromosomes

The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes that carry genetic information. Most body cells have the same number of chromosomes, but this varies between species. Human body cells, for example, each have 23 matching pairs of chromosomes.

15

Mitosis

Part of the cell cycle where one set of new chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell forming two identical nuclei during cell division.

16

Lipids

Consist of three molecules of fatty acids bonded to a molecule of glycerol. The Ethanol test indicates the presence of lipids in solutions.