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Flashcards in 1. Fundametals of Pathology Deck (8):

What color does Hematoxylin stain and what does it stain?

Stains blue to purple; it stains nuclei, nuceloli, bacteria, calcium, and many others.


What color does Eosin stain and what does it stain?

Stains pink to red; it stains cytoplasm, collagen, fibrin, RBCs, Thyroid colloid and many others.


What is Prussian blue used for?

To detect the presence of iron in biopsy specimens.


What is Congo Red used for?

To stain useful for amyloid detection in pathologic tissue; gives red staining of amyloid; also induces green birefringence to amyloid under polarized light.


What is Acid fast (Ziel-Neelson, Fite) used for?

It is a special bacteriological stain used to identify acid-fast organisms, mainly Mycobacteria (tuberculosis and leprae). Can also detect Nocardia.


What is Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) used for?

It is mainly used for staining structures containing a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules (glycogen, glycoprotein, proteoglycans), typically found in e.g. connective tissues, mucus, the glycocalyx, and basal laminae. It is used for glycogen storage disease (versus other disease), adenocarcinomas, paget disease of the breast, alveolar soft part sarcoma, staining macrophages in Whipple's disease, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, Ewing sarcoma, Erythroleukemia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, live fungal infections.


What is Gram stain used for?

It is a method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative). In a Gram stain test, gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet dye, while a counterstain (commonly safranin or fuchsine) added after the crystal violet gives all Gram-negative bacteria a red or pink coloring.


What is Reticulin stain used for?

It is used to visualize reticular fiber and used extensively in liver histopathology.