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Describes actions taken by governments---national, state, and local---to advance some reform or action plan - in health it would be the public's health. It covers how to organize, finance, and properly deliver health care services.


What's the shift of the health insurance?

Shifted from a manufacturing economy based on highly paid full-time jobs with good fringe benefits, toward a service economy with lower paying jobs that are often part time and have poor or no benefits (3/4 of uninsured adults are employed...this is a middle-class issue)


US health care system v. the world?

Least universal, most costly (in the industrialized world)


What's medical loss ratio?

Percentage of health insurance premium that the insurance pays out for actual care (if you?re a pt, you want as much of the money you?re paying to go to actual care, and insurance wants money to stay there)


What is politics?

Who gets what, when, and how


How much is total expenses?

E = U * P (Total expenses = total units of service * price paid per unit)


How are we trying to control total expenses?

U and P are continually rising. We're trying to control individual, but not both at the same time...not really working out cuz providers will always figure out ways to go around


What is a unit service?

Varies. Depending on situation. (1 aspirin? 1 hospital stay?)


Explain how policies are made, realistically.

You have a bunch of problems floating around, and a bunch of participants, and solutions, and with some luck they line up to form opportunities.


Distributive v. Regulator v. redistributive Policies?

1) Give a whole bunch, like to get stuff without thinking we're losing something 2) EG Employee Safety, can be contentious 3) Take from one group and give to another ? quite controversial


4 generic policy fight issues?

1) Is it a government problem 2) Equity/fairness 3) Who pays 4) How complicated (can it be done)?


Tools available to affect health policy?

1) Behavioral incentives (AKA TAXES), Regulation, Direct expense/subsidy, and Direct provision.


4 examples of behavioral incentives, aka taxation?

Tax subsidy for private insurance, taxes on products, MCARE tax on wages, tax exempt financing


2 ways that the government directly provides money for?

Veterans Administration, Indian Health Service