1. Intro and Laterality Flashcards Preview

Anatomy of the Individual > 1. Intro and Laterality > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. Intro and Laterality Deck (14):

What is variation?

Abnormal in structure but not due to disease or trauma

Anatomical variation is a term used to describe any variant of the normal, expected anatomical presentation (Georgiev 2017).


Which paper looked at variations in surface anatomy?

Mirjalilli et al 2012

E.g. coeliac trunk at T12


What is the link between infants with minor and major abnormalities? Which paper looked at this?

Infants with >/3 minor abnormalities have 20% chance of major abnormalities

Sanudo et al 2003


What is situs solitus?

Normal position of thoracic and abdominal organs


What is situs inversus?

Major visceral organs are reversed from their normal positions


What is situs ambiguous?

Asymmetry of unpaired organs (heart, liver) - reversed association along L/R axis


Which tends to cause more symptoms - SI or SA?

SA (SI usually works, SA has more functional problems)


What is isomerism?

Asymmetry of paired organs


What is step 1 of L/R axis formation?

Break the global embryological symmetry and create centre of information (things usually pushed to left by cilia)


What is step 2 of L/R axis formation?

L/R information is propagated and spread to the lateral plate mesoderm
Asymmetric expression of genes in the left lateral plate mesoderm - depends on intact midline


What is step 3 of L/R axis formation?

Recognition by primordia and asymmetric morphogenesis
Unpaired organs - displace from midline or unilateral regression of a bilateral pair
Paired organs - direct translation of L/R signal


What paper highlighted the importance of scanning in SI patients?

Blegen 1949
45% error in diagnosis of SI patients


What did Fulcher and Turner (2002) investigate?

Patient with SI and lymphoma - mistakenly thought large node to right of aorta was IVC
IVC was actually on the left


What did Fang et al (2009) investigate?

Pacemaker insertion in patient with detrocardia and SIT
Apex on right of body
Challenging to place atrial and ventricular leads