# 1. Introduction Flashcards

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

Students in my statistics class are, on average, 23 years old.

Descriptive statistics because it describes sets of actual observations.

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

The population of the world exceeds 7 billions (that is, 7,000,000,000 or 1 million multiplied by 7000)

Inferential statistics because it generalizes beyond sets of actual observations.

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

Either four or eight years have been the most frequent terms of office actually served by U.S. presidents.

Descriptive statistics because it describes sets of actual observations.

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

Sixty-four percent of all college students favor right-to-abortion laws.

Inferential statistics because it generalizes beyond sets of actual observations.

Population

Any complete collection of observations or potential observations.

Sample

Any smaller collection of actual observations from a population.

Random Sampling

A procedure designed to ensure that each potential observation in the population has an equal chance of being selected in a survey.

Random Assignment

A procedure designed to ensure that each person has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment.

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Random Assignment

Experiment

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Representative

Survey

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Generalization to the population

Survey

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Control group

Experiment

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Real difference

Experiment

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Random selection

Survey

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Convenience sample

Experiment

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

volunteers

Experiment

Data

A collection of actual observations or scores in a survey or an experiment.

Qualitative Data

A set of observations where any single observation is a word, letter, or numerical code that represents a class or category.

Yes/No

Y/N

0/1

Ranked Data

A set of observations where any single observation is a number that indicates relative standing.

1st, 2nd…

Quantitative Data

A set of observations where any single observation is a number that represents an amount or a count.

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

ethnic group

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

age

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

family size

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

academic major

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

sexual preference

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

IQ score

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.