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What are the functions of skeletal muscle?

- Continence 

- Locomotion 

- Metabolic 

- Venous return 

- Posture 

- Heat production 


What are fascia?

Sheets of tough connective tissue for protection and compartmentalisation


What are the two main types of cartilage in the body at joints?

- Articular: decrease friction 

- Fibrocartilage: shock absorptin and increase bone congruity 


What are bursa?

Snyovial fluid-filled sacs to protect tendons and ligaments from friction, hard to see.


What is collagen in the bone for?

To reenforce it and give it tensile strength, like metal rods in concrete


How does bone act as a store?

Matrix is made up of calcium phosphate. Amount of storage depends on how good the blood supply is 


What gives bone its mechanical properties?

- Calcium phosphate gives it great compresssive strength and collagen gives it great tensile strength 

- All components of the bone are the same as other conenctive tissues but different proportions 


What are the two divisions of the skeleton?

Appendicular - Bones of upper and lower limbs

Axial - Longitudinal axis of the body 


What is the function of all the different shapes of bones?

- Long: Act as lever in appendicular skeleton 

- Short: Great range of movement and stability 

- Flat: Protect and attachment of muscles

-  Irregular: Protection (have no growth plates or epiphysis) 

- Sesamoid: Embedded in tendons to protect from stress and wear



Where do muscles attach to bones?

Bony prominences, larger the prominence the more powerful the muscle is 


What are the articulating processes of bone?

- Head: rounded articular projection supported by neck 

- Condyle: Large knuckle like projection (medial condyle of femur) 

- Facet: Smooth flat surface (inferior and superior vertebrae) 


What are non-articulating processes?

- Trochanter: Blunt projection only on femur

- Epicondyle: Smaller projection above condyle. Attachement for muscles and ligaments

- Tubercle: Small knob-like rounded process

- Tuberosity: Large, rounded, usually rough process 

-  Crest: Prominent border on ridge 

- Line: Less prominent ridge 

- Spine: Sharp slender process


What is the difference between a tubercle and a tuberosity?


Why do non-articulating processes form?

Result of traction on developing bone by muscles and ligaments. Stronger force exerted on the bone, larger the prominence that develops 


What are some depressions on the surface of the bone?

- Fovea: Pit-like landmark 

- Sulcus/Groove: Furrow that accomodates soft tissue such as blood vessels and nerves 

- Fossa: Basin-like depression

- Cavity: spacious open area

- Notch: c or u shaped depression 


Why do depressions occur on the bone?

Provide the passage of blood vessels and other soft tissues


What are some bone openings and why do they occur?

Occur to allow blood vesels and nerves to pass into or through the bone 

- Foramen: Hole or window in the bone 

- Fissure: Narrow slit like opening between bones 

- Canal: Tube-like passageway 


What is the blood supply to the bone?

Top half is child, metaphysis artery separate. Bottom half is adult and anastomosis occurs between metaphyseal and epiphyseal arteries 


What is avascular necrosis?

- When the bone dies due to lack of blood suppy. Can be due to fractures, alcoholism, steroid use, decompression sickness.


- More likely to happen to children as if their epiphyseal artery is cut off then no blood supply to epiphysis 




What happens to the size of a cricketer's arm bones?

Their dominant arm will become thicker due to remodelling. Osteocytes will detect dominant hand is being used and signal osteoblasts to deposit more bone 


What is a joint and the three classifications of joints?

An articulation between two surfaces. More mobile the joint, less stable it is 


What are fibrous joints?

- United by collagen fibres 

- Virtually no movement so very stable 

e.g sutures of the skull 


What is a cartilaginous joint?

- Bones held together by cartilage, found in midline of body and epiphyseal growth plates 

- Primary: Completely immobile and united by hyaline cartilage, e.g first sternocostsal joint 

- Secondary: Symphyses. Articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage and a pad of fibrocartilage between them 


What are synovial joints?

- Separate bones capped with articular hyaline cartilage and a thin film of synovial fluid separating them 

- Highly mobile 

- Fibrous capsule surrounds the joint and is composed of interlacing and longitudinal collagen. 


What is the function of the fibrous capsule?

Stabilises the joint, permitting movement but preventing dislocation. Continous with the periosteum of the bones


What are the different types of synovial joints?

- Plane: Smooth movement in all directions, e.g carpals 

- Condyloid: Two bowls nestled together 

- Saddle: Motion in two different plates at same time with degree of slidding 

- Hinge: stable flexion and extension in one plane

- Pivot: Peg with ring hole. Allow rotation with no gliding

- Ball and Socket: Stable movement in several directions without slippage. Most mobile 



What are tendon sheaths?

Elongated bursae that wrap around tendons to reduce friction associated with movement of the tendon 


What is the structure and function of the synovial fluid?

- Yellow, viscous, slightly alkaline fluid 

- Less than half a ml in healthy people 

- Contains collagenases, lubricin, hyaluronic acid 

- Shock absorber, reduce friction and nourish the articular cartilage with plexus of arteries


What factors affect the movement of joints?

- Structure/shape of articulating bone 

- Strength and tension of ligaments

- Tone and arrangment of surrounding muscles 

- Apposition of neighbouring soft tissues (restricting) 

- Effect of hormones (e.g pregnancy)

- Disuse of a joint 


How do synovial joints develop embryonically?

- During week 6 synovial joints will for at joint interzone

Cells at centre of the interzone undergo apoptosis 

- Surrounding MSC/chondrocytes in perichondrium will form periosteum

- Some remaining chondrocytes in knee will also form intra-articular ligaments