What parts of the spine have kyphosis / lordosis?
What is a vertebral unit?
Two adjacent vertebrae and the associated intervertebral discs.
What is the orientation of the superior facet in the cervical spine?
What is the orientation of the superior facets in the thoracic spine?
What is the orientation of the superior facets in the lumbar spine?
Which ligament of the spine resists extension?
Anterior longitudinal ligament
Which ligament of the spine resists hyperflexion?
Posterior longitudinal ligament
What ligament connects the laminae of adjacent vertebra?
What are the bilateral and unilateral functions of the rotatores muscles?
Bilateral: extend the spine
Unilateral: rotate the spine
What is the bilateral and unilateral function of the multifidus muscle?
Bilateral: extends spine
Unilateral: Flexes spine to the same side, and rotates it to the opposite side.
(Recall that Mutifidus Ms. attach to the spinus processes)
What are the bilateral and unilateral functions of semispinalis?
Bilateral: Extends thoracic and cervical spines and head
Unilateral: Bends head, cervical, and thoracic spine to same side; and rotates to opposite side.
Who described physiologic (normal and SD) motion of the spine, and when?
Who developed the "third principle" of Fryette's Principles of spinal mechanics?
What spinous process can be found at the following levels?
Spine of the scapula
Inferior angle of the scapula
Spine of the scapula: T3
Inferior angle of scapula: T8
Iliac crest: L4
What three diagnoses should be expected in a patient with pain radiating below the knee?
cauda equina syndrome
What diagnosis should be expected in a patient with saddle anesthesia?
Cauda equina syndrome
What is sacralization?
One or both transverse processes of L5 articulate with the sacrum
What is lumbarization?
Failure of S1 to fuse with the rest of the sacrum