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Flashcards in 1: Organic Brain Syndromes Deck (18)
1

definition of confusion

-inability to think with usual speed and clarity

2

definition of delirium

-special type of confusion w/ disordered perceptions, terrifying hallucinations, and vivid dreams
-marked psychomotor over activity

3

definition of amnesia

-loss of the ability to form memories despite an alert state
-failure of retention, recall, and reproduction
-NO disturbances of perception

4

observable phenomenon in organic brain syndromes (6)

-disturbance of perception
-disturbances of memory
-disturbance of thinking
-(disturbances of emotion, mood, and affect)
-(disturbance of impulse )
-loss of insight

5

what is disturbance of perception?

failure to properly synthesize perceptions
-sensory distortions or overt hallucinatory experiences

6

visual vs. auditory hallucinations

visual - more so with organic brain syndromes
auditory - more so with psychiatric

7

what type of memory is more vulnerable to disease: short-term or long-term?

short-term

8

best ways to evaluate thought processes?

evaluating an individual's spontaneous verbal productions and by engaging him/her in conversation

9

what do you think of with disturbances of emotion, mood, and affect?

usually indicate a psychiatric problem, but may be seen early on in organic brain syndromes

10

what do you think of with disturbances in impulse?

psychiatric problem, but may be organic

11

what is loss of insight?

severely impaired awareness of the degree of one's deficits
-more loss of insight in organic syndromes than with psych disorders

12

what medical illnesses are associated with acute confusional states?

-metabolic disorders:
-hepatic stupor
-uremia
-hypoxia
-hypercapnia
-hypoglycemia
-porphyria
-hyponatremia
-high fever associated with infection
-CHF
-post-traumatic psychosis

13

besides medical illnesses, what is associated with acute confusional states?

-drug intox
-diseases of the nervous system (w/ focal signs and/or CSF changes)

14

what medical illnesses are associated with delirium?

-typhoid fever
-pneumonia
-septicemia
-rheumatic fever
-thyrotoxicosis
-alcoholism/DTs (delirium tremens)

*almost always associated with acute high fever

15

what nervous system diseases, with focal signs and/or CSF changes, are associated with delirium?

-vascular, neoplastic - especially w/ the temporal lobes
-cerebral contusion and laceration (traumatic delirium)
-acute purulent or tuberculosis meningitis
-subarachnoid hemorrhage
-encephalitis

16

what clinical and lab signs of other medical diseases are associated with dementias?

-hypothyroidism
-Cushing's syndrome
-nutritional deficiency states
-pellagra
-Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
-subacute combined degeneration (B12 deficiency)
-chronic meningoencephalitis
-hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease)
-chronic intoxications (bromides, barbituates)

17

what other neurological signs but not obvious medical diseases are associated with dementias?

-Huntington's chorea (choreoathetosis)
-Schilder's disease and related demyelinating diseases (spastic weakness) - rapidly progressive, in small kids
-Tay-Sach's disease and other lipid storage diseases (myoclonic seizures, blindness, spasticity)
-myoclonic epilepsy (diffuse myoclonus)
-Jakob-Creutzfeld disease (myoclonus)

-thrombotic or embolic cerebral infarction
-brain mass
-brain trauma
-communicating hydrocephalus

18

diseases in which dementia is the only evidence of neurological or medical disease

-Alzheimer's disease
-Senile dementia
-Pick's disease