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Flashcards in 1 Pharma Terms Deck (48):
1

Amount that reaches the circulation

Bioavailability

2

Determine the safety and efficacy of generic drugs

Bioequivalence

3

Dose required to bring about 50% of the drug's maximal effect

Potency

4

Dose at which 50% of the individuals exhibit the specified quantal effect

Median effective dose/ ED50

5

Dose at which 50% of the animals manifest a particular toxic effect

Median toxic dose/ TD50

6

Transfer of drug from site of admin to bloodstream

Volume of distribution

7

Elimination of the drug at CONSTANT rate

Zero order kinetics

8

Elimination at a rate that is proportional to the serum conc of the drug

First order kinetics

9

Addition of polar moiety (sulate, glucuronate, acetate)

Phase 2 (conjugation reaction)

10

Use of CYP 450 system (oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis)

Phase 1 (functionalization reaction)

11

Rate at which a specific drug is cleared from the system

Clearance

12

Amount of time required for the amount of the drug in the body to decrease to half its value after administration has been stopped

Half life (T 1/2)

13

Single amount of drug needed to achieve a desired plasma conc quickly

Loading dose

14

Amount of drug that must be given over time in order to maintain desired plasma conc

Maintenance dose

15

Measure of drug safety

Therapeutic index

16

Dose range between the minimum effective therapeutic dose or minimum toxic dose

Therapeutic window

17

Substance that shifts the graded dose response curve to the right

Competitive antagonist

18

Substance that does not produce the same maximum effect and is exhibited by a decrease in the Emax

Partial agonist

19

Substance that depresses the graded-dose response curve in the presence of the natural subtance

Irreversible antagonist

20

An antagonist that interacts directly with the agonist and not at all or only incidentally with the receptor

Chemical antagonist

21

Action of the drug to the body

Pharmacodynamics

22

Action of the body to the drug

Pharmakokinetics

23

Permeation governed by fick's law

Passive diffusion; lipid diffusion

24

Permeation that is saturable and inhibitable

Carrier-mediated transport

25

Adverse effect that is infrequently observed

Idiosyncratic

26

Responsiveness decreases as a consequence of continued drug administration

Tolerance

27

Responsiveness diminishes rapidly after drug administration

Tachyphylaxis

28

Induction of malignant defects in the fetus

Teratogenic

29

Induction of malignant characteristics in cells

Carcinogenesis

30

Induction of changes in the genetic material of animals of any age

Mutagenesis

31

100% bioavailability

IV

32

Affected by First pass effect

PO

33

Partial avoidance of first pass effectively

Rectal, SL

34

Application to skin for LOCAL effect

Topical

35

Application to skin for SYSTEMIC effect

Transdermal

36

Phase of drug studies:

Small number of normal volunteers

Phase I

37

Phase of drug studies:

Post marketing-surveillance

Phase IV

38

Phase of drug studies:

"Does is work in patients?"

Phase II

39

Phase of drug studies:

Randomized, double-blind, controlled trials

Phase III

40

A drug for a rare disease

Orphan drug

41

Case of overdose with a weak acid, what agent will you use to hasten urinary excretion

Acidifying agent
(Ammonium chloride)

42

Cytochrome P450 inducers

Ethel Booba Takes Phenphen and Refuses Greasy Carbs

Ethanol, barbiturates, phenytoin, rifampicin, griseofulvin, carbamazepine, st johns's wort/smoking

43

Cytochrome P450 ihibitors

Inhibitors Stop Cyber Kids from Eating GRApefruit Q

Isoniazid, sulfonamides, cimetidine, ketoconazole, erythromycin, grapefruit juice, ritonavir, amiodarone, quinidine

44

Drugs and Pregnancy:

Safe and Safe

A

Folic acid, thyroid hormones

45

Drugs and Pregnancy:

No studies, safe
Safe, unsafe

B

Zidovudine

46

Drugs and Pregnancy:

No studies, unsafe
No studies, no studies

C

Aspirin

47

Drugs and Pregnancy:

Unsafe, unsafe

D

ACEI and anticonvulsants

48

Drugs and Pregnancy:

Unsafe, unsafe
Benefits does not outweigh the risks

X

Statins, OCPs, clomiphene, misoprostol, high-dose vit A