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Flashcards in 1 - PM Deck (51):
1

Bowel cancer red flags

rectal bleeding
unexplained/unintentional weight loss
family history of bowel or ovarian cancer
onset after 60 years of age

2

which IBD: bloody diarrhoea

UC

3

incomplete emptying

tenesmus

4

Which IBD: increased cancer risk

UC

5

Which IBD: weight loss

Crohns

6

Which IBD: skip lesions

crohns

7

Which IBD: crypt abscess

UC

8

Which IBD: loss of houstral markings

UC

9

what is dysarthria

unclear articulation

10

what is wilsons disease

is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by toxic accumulation of copper in the liver, cornea and brain. Neurological problems may manifest as dementia, tremor or dyskinesias.

11

Copper deposition in cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings = wilsons

12

Diagnosis: blue nails

wilsons

13

Wilsons treatment

penicillamine (chelates copper)

14

painless jaundice

pancreatic cancer

15

Investigation for suspected pancreatic cancer

US

16

acute Ab

IgM

17

chronic Ab

IgG

18

which type of hepatitis cannot exist on its own

hep D, must be with Hep B

19

MEN - 1

parathyroid (95%): hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia
pituitary (70%)
pancreas (50%, e.g. Insulinoma, gastrinoma)
also: adrenal and thyroid

20

Diagnosis: + anti-nuclear and/or anti-smooth muscle antibodies.

autoimmune hepatitis

21

Diagnosis: + antimitochondrial antibodies

primary biliary cirrhosis

22

autoimmune hepatitis treatment

steroids, other immunosuppressants e.g. azathioprine
liver transplantation

23

UC is associated with which biliary condition

primary sclerosing cholangitis

24

which ANCA seen in primary biliary cirrhosis

p-ANCA

25

Diagnosis: ERCP showing multiple biliary strictures giving a 'beaded' appearance

primary sclerosing cholangitis

26

Diagnosis: diabetes, arthralgia, deranged ALT and very high ferritin

Haemochromatosis

27

What is Haemochromatosis

autosomal recessive disorder of iron absorption and metabolism resulting in iron accumulation

28

what IBD: inflammatory cell infiltrate in lamina propria

UC

29

paracetamol overdose treatment

Acetylcysteine

30

Murphy's sign positive indicates what

Acute cholecystitis

31

what is Acute cholecystitis

inflammation of gallbladder

32

female, forties, fat and fair applies to which condition

Biliary colic

33

what is biliary colic

pain occurs due to a gallstone temporarily blocking the bile duct.

34

what is ascending cholangits

infection of the bile ducts commonly secondary to gallstones

35

Diagnosis: fever (riggers), RUQ pain, jaundice

ascending cholangitis

36

Diagnosis: palpable mass in the right upper quadrant, periumbilical lymphadenopathy and left supraclavicular adenopathy

Cholangiocarcinoma

37

what causes pseudomembranous colitis.

C. diff: exotoxin which causes intestinal damage

38

diarrhoea, what finding on bloods will suggest C. diff

raise WBC

39

C. diff diagnosis

by detecting Clostridium difficile toxin (CDT) in the stool

40

C. diff treatment

first-line therapy is oral metronidazole for 10-14 days
if severe or not responding to metronidazole then oral vancomycin may be used
for life-threatening infections a combination of oral vancomycin and intravenous metronidazole should be used

41

who gets colonoscopy if found to have iron deficient anaemia

> 60 (suspect colon cancer)

42

H. pylori treatment

a proton pump inhibitor + amoxicillin + clarithromycin, or
a proton pump inhibitor + metronidazole + clarithromycin

43

what is Budd-Chiari syndrome

obstruction to hepatic venous outflow

44

How may Budd-Chiara syndrome present

abdominal pain: sudden onset, severe
ascites
tender hepatomegaly

45

coeliacs diagnosis

serology and jejunal biopsy

46

which blood test indicated crohns activity

CRP

47

Crohns diagnosis

colonoscopy + biopsy

48

Diagnosis: positive anti-endomysial antibodies

coeliacs

49

what is achalasia

failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause a sphincter to remain closed and fail to open when needed

50

diagnosis: extraocular muscle weakness or ptosis
Dysphagia with liquids as well as solids

Myasthenia gravis

51

fatty stools, anaemia and low ferritin/folate levels,

coeliacs