Flashcards in 1. The Emergence of Psychology Deck (20):
What is the discipline of psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour (British Psychological Society, 2014)
What is the mind?
Inner experience, perception, thoughts, feelings and memories
What is behaviour?
What are the domains of psychological inquiry?
What is nativism?
Plato (428-347 BC):
Certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
What is philosophical empiricism?
Aristotle (384-322 BC):
All knowledge is acquired through experience
What did Descartes (1596-1650) propose?
The brain and the mind are different. The body is material whilst the mind is spiritual.
What did Hobbes (1588-1679) suggest about mind-body dualism?
Hobbes rejected Descartes' suggestion, arguing that the mind is what the brain does.
What is phrenology?
Franz Gall (1758-1828):
Mental abilities and characteristics are localised in specific brain regions.
Bumps and indentations on the skull reflect size of brain regions and attributes.
Based on anecdotes and casual observations.
No evidence to support this.
Why is Wilhelm Wundt (1867) significant in the "birth" of psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt (1867) opened the first laboratory dedicated to psychological study.
What is structuralism?
Analysis of basic elements.
What is introspection?
Subjective observation of own experience.
The method used by Wilhelm Wundt to study structuralism.
What is functionalism?
William James (1842-1910):
Argues that breaking down consciousness into its component parts (structuralism) distorts its nature.
Proposed functionalism - the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment.
What is gestalt psychology?
The whole is of greater value than the sum of its parts.
What is psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939):
Suggested patient problems result from underlying unconscious conflict.
Conflict is managed (unconsciously) by defence mechanisms e.g. denial.
Mental health problems arise as a result of ego anxieties (developmental fixation) or defence mechanisms.
What are the 5 psychoanalytical stages (Freud, 1856-1939)?
1. Oral (18-24 months)
2. Anal (24-48 months)
3. Phallic (48 months to 6 years)
4. Latency (6 years to puberty)
5. Genital stage (puberty to adulthood)
Who are the 2 main figures in humanistic psychology?
Abraham Maslow (1908-1870) and Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
What is humanistic psychology?
An approach to understanding human nature that emphasises the positive potential of human beings
What is client-centred therapy about in humanistic psychology?
Congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathy