Ageism refers to prejudice against the aged.
“Old People” generalizations are ageism.
Elderly are likely to accept and internalize it.
Gerontology is the study of both the aspects and consequences of old age.
It is the fastest growing specialty due to the “graying of America.”
Differentiate between Life Expectancy and Life Span.
Life Expectancy: The probable number of years remaining in life.
Life Span: The average or maximum amount of time an organism, material, or object can be expected to last.
How is Life Expectancy derived?
Life Expectancy is determined statistically, and is affected by factors, such as heredity, physical condition, nutrition, and occupation.
How many years are the Life Expectancy and Life Span of a human being?
Life Expectancy: ~70-80 years
Life Span: 140 years
List the five Biological Theories of Aging.
1: Wear & Tear
2: Free Radical Theory
3: Immunological theory
4: Neuroendocrine/ Neurochemical Theories
5: Programmed Longevity Theory
Describe the Wear & Tear (biological) Theory of aging.
- oldest theory
- aging is the result of repeated use and injury over time
- cells constantly wear out and repair themselves, but capacity of repair is exceeded
Give one example of the Wear & Tear (biological) theory of aging.
Describe the Free Radical (biological) Theory of aging.
Products of oxidation result in cell breakdown.
Give two examples of the Free Radical (biological) Theory of aging.
Describe the Immunological (biological) Theory of aging.
Decline in immune system increases vulnerability to disease
How does gender play a role in the Immunological (biological) Theory of aging?
Women have a stronger immune system and therefore have a longer life expectancy
Describe the Neuroendocrine/ Neurochemical (biological) Theories of aging.
Exposure to hazards, such as carcinogens, sunlight, trauma, and infection, lead to aging.
Describe the Programmed Longevity (biological) theory of aging.
Involuntary inherited processes alter cellular or tissue structures, leading to aging.
Give an example of the Programmed Longevity (biological) theory of aging.
List the three Socio/Psychological Theories of aging.
1: Disengagement theory
2: Activity theory
3: Continuity theory
Describe the Disengagement (Socio/Psychological) Theory of aging, including its basis and implications.
- Disengagement Theory: A gradual withdrawal between society and the older adult
- based upon a small study from the 1950s
- The disengagement theory is what retirement age and Medicare are based upon
Describe the Activity (Socio/Psychological) Theory of aging.
The Activity Theory of Aging involves remaining active and engaged (no aging).
Describe the Continuity (Socio/Psychological) Theory of aging.
- The Latter part of life is a continuation of the earlier part.
- The body parts age at different speeds
- Older adulthood is an extension of adulthood
Which Socio/Psychological Theory of aging is the most current model?
The Continuity Theory
Describe primary aging, including affected body systems.
- Universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as individuals grow older.
- Neuro, skeletal, hormonal
Describe secondary aging, including possible causes and body systems.
- “Common illnesses” or conditions in aging
- Caused by habits, genes, and other influences.
- Vary from person to person.
What are the age ranges for Young Old, Middle Old, and Old Old?
Young Old: 60/65-75
Middle Old: 75-85
Old Old: 85+
Name 6 Developmental theorists.
Who developed a Developmental Crisis developmental theory?
Who developed a Psychosexual Development theory?
Who developed a Developmental Tasks developmental theory?
Who developed a Cognitive Development theory?
Who developed a Moral Development theory?
Who developed a FAith Development theory?
Describe Erickson’s Developmental Crisis, with regards to the aged.
- Ego Integrity vs. Despair
- Acceptance of one’s own life cycle
- Tasks met/tasks unmet
- Reminiscence provides fulfillment and purpose
What is the difference between Ego Integrity and Despair, according to Erickson?
Ego Integrity: job, children, education (Uplifting connections to life)
Despair: Burdons, regrets
Describe Freud’s Psychosexual Development, with regards to the aged.
- Genital stage of sexuality
- Fulfillment of relationship
- May involve sharing meals, watching television together, etc.
Describe Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks, with regards to the aged.
- Changing social roles
- Adjusting to decreasing physical status and health
- Adjusting to retirement
- Adjusting to death of spouse
- Adjusting to living on fixed income
Describe Piaget’s Cognitive Development, with regards to the aged.
- Formal Operational stage (problem-solving, puzzles)
- Uses abstract thinking and deductive reasoning
- Get clues about life to demonstrate what client was doing before dementia began.
Describe Kohlburg’s Moral Development, with regards to the aged.
- Conventional: Respects values and ideals of others
- Postconventional: Uses moral judgement that’s rational and internalized (may break rules)
- May reach either stage
Describe Fowler’s Faith Development, with regards to the aged
- Universalizing Faith
- Making tangible the values of absolute love and justice for humankind
- Overcome paradoxes