What is the impact on function of teeth being worn and fracturing easily?
- Difficulty chewing
- Possible dentures (dentures may not fit well, due to weight loss)
List three primary aging characteristics of the mouth.
- Teeth worn and fracture easily
- Decreased salivary gland production
- Decrease in number of taste buds
What is the impact on function of a decrease in salivary gland production?
- Dry mouth
- Altered digestion (salivary amylase)
What is the impact on function of a decrease in the number of taste buds?
Possible change in appetite.
List 10 primary aging characteristics of the upper G.I. tract.
- Increased gastric emptying time
- Relaxed lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
- Decline in lactase
- Delayed gastric motility
- Decreased intrinsic factor
- Decreased hydrochloric acid production
- Decreased absorption, motility, and blood flow to small intestine
- Decreased liver size and blood flow
- Decreased bile production
- Decreased pancreas size
What is the impact on function of increased gastric emptying time?
Decreased appetite, stays fuller longer, doesn’t eat as often and not as much.
Describe the impact on function of a relaxed lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
Increased risk of reflux (pain, injury)
What is the impact on function of a decline in lactase?
For lactose intolerance. [Lactose intolerance is not primary aging, but is possible.]
What is the impact on function of delayed gastric motility?
Altered medication absorption
What is the impact on function of decreased intrinsic factor?
Risk for pernicious anemia [Low levels of vitamin B12 can mimic dementia. May require monthly B12 injections.]
What is the impact on function of decreased hydrochloric acid production?
Risk for achlorhydria [No HCl in stomach acid; can lead to food poisoning/diarrhea.]
What is the impact on function of decreased absorption, motility, and bloodflow in small intestines?
Risk for deficiency of fats, minerals, and some vitamins.
What is the impact on function of decreased liver size and bloodflow?
Risk for impaired medication metabolism and excretion. [Can lead to drug poisoning/ overdose, reduced alcohol tolerance]
What is the impact on function of decreased bile production?
Risk for cholelithiasis (gallstones)
What is the impact on function of decreased pancreas size?
Risk for impaired digestion, diabetes risk
List 2 characteristics of primary aging in the lower G.I. tract.
- Weakening of intestinal walls
2. Decrease in neuron density
What is the impact on function of weakening of (large) intestinal walls?
Increased risk for diverticulitis
What is the impact on function of decreased neuron density?
Increased risk for constipation or diarrhea. [Lack of control or lack of signal.]
List 2 common secondary aging disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Which 3 types of medications may be prescribed for constipation?
- Stimulant laxatives (sennosides)
- Stool softeners (docusate)
- Magnesium laxatives (MOM)
Which types of medications for constipation are taken regularly and which is taken as needed?
Taken regularly: stimulant laxative, stool softener
Taken as needed: magnesium laxative
Which 2 types of medications may be prescribed for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?
- Proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantroprazol)
- Histamine H2 antagonist (famotinidine, cimetidine, ranitidine)
What are some things that can cause constipation?
- Opioid analgesics (narcotics)
- anticholinergics (ex atropine)
- Cognitive decline
Describe constipation in simple terms.
Constipation is a different movement of bowels from normal pattern.
What are some possible complications of constipation?
- Vaso vagal response (passing out)
- Sepsis (perforated bowel)
What are some non-pharmaceutical solutions for constipation?
- Digital stimulation
- Caffeine, nicotine
- Activity (exercise)*