Varicose Veins Flashcards
What are varicose veins?
Tortuous dilated segments of vein associated with valvular incompetence
What do varicose veins arise from?
How do incompetent valves lead to varicose valves?
Incompetent valves permit blood flow from the deep venous system to the superficial venous system, resulting in venous hypertension and dilation of the superficial venous system
Where does blood flow from the deep venous system to the superficial venous system?
At the saphenous-femoral junction and sapheno-popliteal junction
What % of varicose veins are primary idiopathic varicose veins?
What are the secondary causes of varicose veins?
- Pelvic masses
- Arteriovenous malformations
Give 3 examples of pelvic masses that can lead to varicose veins?
- Uterine fibroids
- Ovarian masses
What is the age-adjusted prevalence rate for varicose veins?
40% in men
32% in women
What % of women with varicose veins are affected during or after pregnancy?
By how much does the risk of varicose veins increase per year?
- 9% in men
2. 6% in women
What are the risk factors for the development of varicose veins?
- Prolonged standing
- Family history
How will patients typically present with varicose veins?
Cosmetic issues, such as unsightly visible veins or discolouration of the skin
What symptoms may be caused by worsening varicose veins?
- Swelling (often worse on standing or at the end of the day)
What are the subsequent complications of varicose veins?
- Skin changes
Does cosmetic issues alone qualify for treatment of varicose veins?
Not in UK
What will be found on examination in varicose veins?
Varicosities in the courses of the great and short saphenous veins
What symptoms of venous insufficiency might varicose veins present with?
- Varicose eczema or thrombophlebitis
- Haemosiderin skin staining
- Atrophie blanche
Where do ulcers typically appear in varicose veins?
Over the medial malleolus
What is lipodermatosclerosis?
Tapering of the legs above the ankles, in an ‘inverted champagne bottle’ appearance
What is a saphena varix?
A dilation of the saphenous vein at the saphenofemoral junction in the groin
What is saphena varix commonly mistaken for?
A femoral hernia
Why is saphena varix commonly mistaken for a femoral hernia?
Because it displays a cough impulse
When should suspicion be raised of a saphena varix?
In any suspected femoral hernia if the patient has concurrent varicosities present in the rest of the limb
How can saphena varix best be identified?
Via duplex ultrasound