10. Environment and Lifestyle-Related Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10. Environment and Lifestyle-Related Pathology Deck (36):
1

What is pneumoconioses?

Fibrosing pulmonary disease caused by inhalation of an aerosol (mineral dusts, particles, vapors, or fumes).

2

What is anthracosis?

When carbon pigment (anthracotic pigment) accumulates in macrophages along the pleural lymphatics. It is asymptomatic.

3

What is simple coal worker's pneumoconiosis?

AKA black lung disease, coal-dust macules and nodules in the upper lobes. Little pulmonary dysfunction.

4

What is complicated coal worker's pneumoconiosis?

Progressive massive fibrosis with increasing respiratory distress. May progress to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

5

What is Caplan syndrome?

Pneumoconiosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

6

Which type of asbestos is associated with being more pathogenic and highly associated with mesotheliomas?

The amphibole kind which are straight and brittle fibers. There are crocidolite, tremolite and amosite subtypes. Serpentine are not so much pathogenic and are curved, flexible fibers with chrysolite subtype.

7

What happens in asbestosis?

Diffuse interstitial fibrosis, which is most severe in the lower lobes. Asbestos bodies that may become coated with iron (ferruginous bodies). Slowly progressive dyspnea that may progress to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

8

What other syndrome is associated with asbestosis?

Caplan syndrome.

9

How is silicosis acquired?

Exposure to silicon dioxide (silica).

10

What is the most common type of tumor in asbestos-exposed individuals?

Bronchogenic carcinoma.

11

What are the clinical symptoms of malignant mesotheliomas?

Recurrent pleural effusions, dyspnea and chest pain. There is an encasement and compression of the lungs. Micro: carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements (biphasic parttern).

12

What do we seen in X-ray of someone with silicosis?

Fibrotic nodules in the upper zones.

13

What are the clinical symptoms of silicosis?

Insidious onset of dysnea, slowly progressive despite cessation of exposure.

14

How does berylliosis damage the lungs?

Causes type IV hypersensitivity reaction, resulting in granuloma formation.

15

What does acute exposure to beryllium cause?

Acute pneumonitis.

16

Who are in danger for berylliosis?

Personel on aerospace industry and nuclear reactors.

17

What does chronic exposure to beryllium cause?

Pulmonary noncaseating granulomas and fibrosis, hilar lymph node granulomas, and systemic granulomas.

18

What does aspirin do?

Irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase, preventing platelet production of thromboxane A2.

19

How does carbon monoxide does damage to the body?

With its high affinity to oxygen, it forms carboxyhemoglobin, which shifts the oxygen dissociation curve causing systemic hypoxia.

20

What does 10% concentration of carbon monoxide in the body do?

Asymptomatic.

21

What does 30% concentration of carbon monoxide in the body do?

Headache and shortness of breath on exertion.

22

What does 50% concentration of carbon monoxide in the body do?

Loss of consciousness, convulsion and coma.

23

What does 60% and above concentration of carbon monoxide in the body do?

Death.

24

What are the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning?

Bright "cherry-red" color of the skin, mucosal membranes, and the blood.

25

What are the symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning?

Garlic-scented breath, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, CNS toxicity that may lead to coma and seizure.

26

What are the symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning?

Malaise and abdominal pain, peripheral neurpathy and muscular weakness, sking changes (hyperpigmentation and dermatitis), Mees lines (transverse bands on the finger nails seen in heavy metal poisoning).

27

How does lead interfere with heme production?

It inhibits d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and ferrochelatase.

28

What are the symptoms of lead poisoning?

CNS toxicity, wrist and foot drop (in adults due to peripheral motor never demyelination), abdominal pain (colic pain), renal tubular acidosis, and renal failure, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling, deposition of lead at the gingivodental line ("lead line").

29

What do we expect to see in X-ray of someone with chronic lead poisoning?

Long bones have lead lines (increased bone density) at the epiphyseal growth plates.

30

What does mercury poisoning cause?

Neurotoxicity (intention tremors, dementia and delirium (mad as a hatter), and nephrotoxicity (acute tubular necrosis).

31

What are the symptoms of cyanide poisoning?

"Bitter almond" scented breath, causes systemic asphyxia.

32

What is the mechanism of cyanide poisoning?

Blocks cellular respiration by binding to mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase.

33

What does methanol convert to inside the body and what is its treatment?

Metabolized to fomaldehyde (by alcohol dehydrogenase) and formic acid. Treatment is ethyl alcohol (ethanol, normal alcohol).

34

What are the symptoms of methyl alcohol poisoning?

Blindness by necrosis of retinal ganglion cells and can lead to inebriation, coma, and death.

35

What is the telltale sign of IV drug abuse and why?

"Track marks" in the antecubital fossa, which are produced from the healing of skin abscesses.

36

What can chronic use of cocaine cause?

Perforation of the nasal septum and dilated cardiomyopathy.