Flashcards in 10 - Localisation of Learning Deck (24):
What are the three types of experiments that demonstrate there are multiple memory systems?
1. Place Strategy (access whole maze, need fornix)
2. Conditioned Cue Preference (training with one arm with cheese and one without. Amygdala needed to learn)
3. Response Strategy (four arms with food, learn sequence, need caudate nucleus)
What part of the brain is larger in London taxi drivers?
Hippocampus and more activation during navigation task
What type of experiment and what part of the brain is damaged when testing spatial navigation?
Morris Water Maze and damaging hippocampus
What are hippocampal place cells?
Neurons that have receptive fields that identify with specific locations in specific environments.
They fire when in a specific part of an environment
What types of receptive fields do hippocampal place cells have?
Allocentric (defined by relations among objects)
Where are the hippocampal place cells located in the brain?
CA1 - CA3 regions and dentate gyrus
Do individual hippocampal place cells uniquely code for particular locations?
No, pattern of activity across multiple cells does.
Each cell can be active in more than one environment.
Are hippocampal cells sensitive to direction?
Some are and some are not.
Direction-sensitivity influenced by relevance of direction to ask (finding food in specific sequence vs randomly scattered)
How stable are hippocampal place cells?
Very stable, established within a few minutes of being introduced to novel environment and can be maintained for up to several months.
Where do the inputs to the hippocampal place cells come from?
Different types of cells provide building blocks for allocentric representations
How do neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex respond to a rat's movement?
Follows a lattice or grid.
Retain grid layout despite changes in speed or direction of movement.
Explain the pattern of grid cells in the MEC
Pattern arises from instrinsic nature of network connections in MEC
Single grid cell provides ambiguous information about location, but can be resolved by combining across multiple grid cells.
Overall, what is the main role of the hippocampus?
But this is fundamental for many types of learning and memory (episodic, working memory)
Describe the most predominate experiment paradigm in cerebellar learning
Rabbit hears a noise (CS) followed by air puff to eye (US)
After 30-40 trials, rabbit learns to blink in response to noise.
What parts of the brain are involved in the eye-blink response and then added in the CR circuit?
- Puff signal travels down trigeminal nerve to the trigeminal nucleus and cranial motor nucleus. The blink goes to the same nucleus through the abducens nerve.
- Red nucleus in brainstem
- Pontine nuclei in brainstem
- Inferior olive in brainstem
What is the role of the red nucleus in the eye-blink conditioned response?
Connected to cranial motor nucleus
Stimulation induces eye-blink
Critical for expression of CR, not learning
What is the role of the pontine nuclei in the eye-blink conditioned response?
Received input from auditory nucleus in brainstem, output to Cb
Neurons respond to sound.
Part of pathway conveying CS input
What is the role of the inferior olive in the eye-blink conditioned response?
Receives input from trigeminal nucleus, output to Cb
Part of path conveying US input
What is the role of the cerebellum in the eye-blink conditioned response?
Received converging input from pontine nuclei and inferior olive; output to red nucleus.
Get conditioning with combined stimulation of pontine nuclei and olive.
Lesion prevents learning, and blocks expression of previously learned CR
What happens if the red nucleus is inactivated temporarily during eye-blink conditioned response training?
Prevents development of CR to CS (extinction), but once inactivation reversed, CR spontaneously reappears.
What can electrical stimulation of the pontine nucleus achieve in eyeblink conditioning?
Serve as effective CS (instead of CS) when paired with air puff US
What can electrical stimulation of the inferior olive do?
Elicits eye-blink and serve as US (instead of air puff) if paired with tone
What do lesions to the inferior olive affect in eye-blink conditioning?
Prevents learning, but no effect on previously learned CS (-> induces extinction)