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Flashcards in 101 Final Deck (126):
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Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

Elements the human body makes up 96%

1

Action potential

Transient polarization event that includes polarity reversal of sarcolemma (nerve cell membrane)

The start of an electrical current

2

Anterior chamber of eye

Between cornea and iris

3

Blind spot of eye

Region where the retina connects to optic nerve whee there are no rods or cones to receive images--optic disk

4

Connective tissue

Blood is the tissue

5

Cartilage tissue

Tough elastic material found between bones of spine and ends of long bones

Shock absorber and allows for flexibility

Found in nose, ear, larynx

6

Causes of conduction deafness

Ear infection
Allergies
Hole in eardrum
Earwax
Swimmers ear

7

Characteristics of irregular bone

Complicated shapes for protection

Vertebrae protects spine

Hip bones protect internal organs

8

Characteristics of neuron

Body (soma), axon, dendrites

Long lived, amniotic, high metabolic rate

Use highest amount of energy in the body

9

Characteristics of plasma membrane PPLC

Fine layers of phospholipids

Protein, lipids, carbohydrates

10

Characteristics of reticular fibers

Branched collagenous fibers that form delicate networks

11

Characteristics of spongy bone

Honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow

Yellow marrow is made of adipose tissue and is in long bones

12

Characteristics of trabecular bone

Filled with yellow marrow

Same as spongy bone

13

Glycogen

CHO stores in liver in this form

14

Circumvallate papillae

Any of usual 8-12 large papillae near back of the tongue
Provide a final safe guard against something harmful or unhealthy

15

Conjunctivitis

Pink eye

Contagious inflammation of conjunctiva and is usually caused by bacteria or virus

Redness, swelling, pain, pus

16

Sarcomere

Contractile unit of skeletal muscles

17

Cornea

Circular and transparent in front of cornea

Allows light rays into the eye

First place where light is bent and refracted

18

Astrocytes

Most abundant glial cell

Cling to neurons and their synaptic endings

Cover capillaries

Support neurons, anchor them

Control chemical environment

19

Bursae

Flattened shapes

Sacs lines with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid

20

Ependymal cells

Thin membrane of glial cells lining the ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord

21

Fontanelle

Soft spot, allow cranium to expand

22

Foramina

Round opening in bone

Passageway for blood vessels, nerves, and other things

23

Ganglia

Parasympathetic cell bodies

Surround cell bodies

24

Ligaments

Connective tissue band

Help hold long bones together at a joint

25

Menisci

Crescent shaped fibrocartilage acting as a cushion

All synovial joints

Part of knee

26

Mitosis

Split cell and make another

Cell division

Division of nucleus

27

Monosaccharides

Simple sugar

Carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis

Two main types are aldosesand and ketoses

28

What does it mean to be simple cuboidal

Cube-shaped single layer

29

Simple squamous

Single layer, flat irregular

30

Simple columnar

One layer, column shaped

31

Where do you find simple cuboidal tissue/cells

Digestive system and duct system

32

Where do you find simple squamous

Lines capillaries, serous membranes, blood vessels

33

What is the function of collagen

Tensile strength

34

What's the function of elastic tissue

Stretch

35

What is the function of reticular tissue

Gives support

36

What is the function of muscular tissue

Movement

37

What makes up/components of connective tissue

Fibers, cells, ground substance

38

How do you know that tissue is damaged

Inflammation

39

Three types of skeletal cartilage

Hyaline (most abundant), fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage

40

What is the structural unit of a compact bone

Haversian system or osteon

41

If you had to pick a bone tissue to withstand tension, what bone tissue would you pick?

Compact

42

Rheumatoid arthritis (what's different from other arthritis)

Caused by genetics, autoimmune disease (body cannot protect itself)

43

Osteoarthritis

General wear and tear of a joint

44

Gouty arthritis

Uric acid build up

45

Where do cranial bones develop from

Within fibrous connective tissue membranes

46

Differentiate between epiphyseal line and epiphyseal plate

The line forms after the plate closes

47

Which hormone influences bone development

Growth hormone

48

Thyroid hormone controls what

BMI

49

What parts do you find in the synovial joints

Articular cartilage, articular capsules, synovial membrane, synovial fluid

50

Where is the bursa found

Between joints, acts as a cushion

51

Where do you find the tendon sheath

Around the tendon, outside the joint, reduce friction

52

What is the function in the joint of synovial fluid

Lubricates the joint

53

What is the function of articular cartilage

Prevents friction

54

Wheee is articular cartilage found

End of bones

55

What are the functions of the skeletal system

Protect, support, mineral storage, blood cell production,

56

Where are osteocytes found

Lacunae

57

What are osteocytes

Mature bone cells

58

What are osteoblasts

Make up bone matrix

59

Osteoclasts

Tears down bone matrix

60

What are chondrocytes

Produce cartilage

61

What is the bursa

Sac-like structure

62

What is a meniscus

Fibrocartilage disk

63

What is a ligament

Made out of fibrous tissue, connects bone to bone or bone to muscle

Main component is collagen

64

What are tendons

Connects muscle to muscle, muscle to bone

Function is to provide strength and tension to the joint

Strong fibrous connective tissue

65

What is a flagellum

Propels like a flipper, whip like motion

66

Tiniest cell in human body

Sperm

67

Flagellum is found

Only on the sperm

68

What do you find in the thoracic cavity

Heart, lungs, pleura membrane, great vessels, diaphragm

69

What do find in cranial cavity

Brain

70

What do you find in the dorsal cavity

Brain and spinal cord

71

What is found in the ventral cavity

Thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

72

What is negative feedback

Tries to return to homeostasis, different from positive because it stops and shuts down

73

What is positive feedback

Fills it up, responds and returns, gets bigger and bigger

Contractions, blood clot

74

How to define survival needs

Goal of life is to survive

75

What does it mean by imbalance in homeostasis

Sick

76

Human body from simplest to complex

organelles, cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organisms

77

Strongest bonds in human body

Covalent

78

What are the weakest bonds

Hydrogen

79

What does it mean to synthesize

Production or making of something

80

What is the longest chain of simple sugar

Polysaccharides

81

What is the most common element

Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen (make up 96%)

82

What is the most abundant substance in the body

Water

83

What is another name for table sugar

Sucrose

84

Sucrose

Disaccharide

85

What is an ionic compound

One is positive, one is negative, form electrolytes, held together by an electrical current

86

What is the pH scale

Measures acidity, pH of 9 you are basic, pH of 3 you are acidic

87

What is an ion

Positive or negatively charged substances

88

What is the most common positive ion outside the cell

Sodium

89

Solution

Mixture dissolved

90

Suspension

Heavier substance sinks

91

What is a colloidal solution

Like opaque, think you can see through it

Example is plasma

92

What is an example of a suspension in the body

Blood

93

What is cytosol

Fluid found in cells

94

What kind of solution is cytosol

Colloidal

95

What is diffusion

Movement across the membrane, goes from natural gradient from high to low

No energy (capillaries)

96

What is osmosis

Diffusion of water (kidney)

97

What is active transport

Energy needed, have to have a carrier

98

What is phagocytosis

The cell engulfs particles that are bad (white blood cells)

99

Three types of cell junctions

Tight junctions (keep everything in and out)

Desmosomes (anchor)

Communication junction (gap junctions)

100

Meiosis

Division of DNA matter to half

101

Mitosis

Copies everything to get two identical daughter cells

102

Make up of the plasma membranes

Two layers, proteins and lipids, little carbohydrates

Sign is phospholipids

103

What is a fixator

Stabilizer while one part of the body moves

104

Synergistic

Worlds together with another muscle

105

Antogonist

Works against muscles

106

Agonist muscle

Works to produce a specific movement

107

Perimysium

Connective tissue surrounding a fascicle

108

What is endomysium

Covers each muscle fiber

109

Membrane of each muscle fiber

Sarcolemma

110

What is a myofibril

Made up of myofilaments (actin and myosin)

111

What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle

Sarcomere

112

What are the thin filaments in a muscle

Actin

113

What are the thick filaments

Myosin

114

What is the most common waste product found in the skeletal muscles

Lactic acid

115

What happens if you stretch a muscle where thick and thin are not overlapping

Lose all tension, none generated

116

Role of acetylcholine

Destroy

117

Rule of nines

Measurement of how burnt a patient is

118

Divisions of ANS

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

119

Function of primary somatosensory cortex

Exhibits spacial discrimination

120

Function of somatosensory association cortex

Integrates sensory information, forms comprehensive understanding of a stimulus

Determines size, texture

121

Function of prefrontal cortex

Intellect, cognition, recall, personality

122

Location of gustatory

Somatosensory association cortex

123

Function of thalamus

Relay center, motor activities, memory, learning

124

Function of hypothalamus

Regulates blood pressure, heart rate

125

Pyruvic acid is converted to

Ethanol