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Elementary Praxis > Phonics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Phonics Deck (37)
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1
Q

Alliteration

A

Alliteration is the repetition of the first letter sound in a phrase.

2
Q

Blend

A

to draw individual sounds together to pronounce a word, e.g. s-n-a-p, blended together, reads snap

3
Q

Compound word

A

a word made by putting two or more words together (seesaw).

4
Q

Cluster

A

two (or three) letters making two (or three) sounds, e.g. the first three letters of ‘straight’ are a consonant cluster

5
Q

Consonants

A

phonemes marked by constriction or closure in the breath channel – letter other than a, e, i, o and u.

6
Q

Consonant blend

A

a sequence of two or three consonants, each of which is heard with minimal change.

7
Q

consonant digraph

A

consists of two consonants that together represent one sound (sh, ch, th, gh) – which is not associated with the constituent letters (ship, chip, phone, laugh). The “kn” in know is not a digraph, for example.’Wh’ may or may not be a digraph, depending on how it is spoken (for some speakers, weather and whether have different initial sounds)

8
Q

Contraction

A

a short way to write two words as one by writing the two words together, leaving out one or more letters and replacing the missing letters by an apostrophe (cannot = can’t)

9
Q

diphthong

A

phoneme where the mouth glides from one vowel sound directly into another in the same syllable – both vowels may be heard, but not quite making their usual sounds because of the blending. These include oi, oy, ow, and ou.

10
Q

Final blends

A

blends of two or three-letter consonants which make only one sound. These include -ng, -nk, -sh, -ch, and -tch.

11
Q

Grapheme

A

a letter or a group of letters representing one sound, e.g. sh, ch, igh, ough (as in ‘though’)

12
Q

homographs

A

words which are spelled alike but have different sounds and meanings (bow and arrow vs. bow of a ship)

13
Q

homonyms

A

words which sound the same but have different spellings and meanings (bear, bare)

14
Q

Long Vowel Sounds

A

say the name of the letter – for example the letter “a” would be pronounced as “aiy” as in “hay” or “day”

15
Q

Onset

A

the consonant sounds in a word that came before the first vowel sound in a syllable; Not all words or syllables have onsets (at, oar)

16
Q

open syllable

A

a syllable that ends in a vowel sound, typically a long vowel sound (tiger, hotel)

17
Q

Phonemes

A

basic sound unit of speech

18
Q

Phonemic Awareness

A

the understanding that words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes); this is a sub-category of phonological awareness. It includes the ability to distinguish rhyme, blend sounds, isolate sounds (such as initial & final),segment sounds, and manipulate sounds in words.

19
Q

Phonics

A

the relationships between the sounds of a language and the letters used to represent those sounds – a way of teaching reading and spelling that stresses symbol sound relationships

20
Q

Phonological awareness

A

awareness of units of speech, such as words, syllables, and phonemes

21
Q

Phonograms

A

a letter-sound combination that includes more than one grapheme or phoneme

22
Q

Prefix

A

a syllable or group of syllables attached to the beginning of a word or root to change its meaning (reprint, unpack, dislike)

23
Q

r-controlled vowels

A

An ‘r’ sound following a vowel sound almost always distorts the vowel, making such words harder to spell – cat/car. Common r-controlled vowels are: ar, er, ir, or, ur.

24
Q

rime

A

the first vowel sound and any others that follow it in a syllable (cat, treat, chair). Cat,sat and fat rhyme because they share a rime. Each syllable in a word can be analyzed in terms of onset/rime: fantastic, playground, airplane.

25
Q

Schwa

A

the vowel sound of any unaccented syllable in English

26
Q

Short vowel sounds

A

the short vowel sounds are the first to be introduced, for example the letter “a” with the short vowel sound would sound like “a” as in “cat” or “sat”

27
Q

soft c and g rule

A

when c or g is followed by e, i, or y, it is usually soft

28
Q

split digraph

A

two letters, split, making one sound, e.g. a-e as in make or i-e in site

29
Q

syllable patterns

A

English syllables can be grouped into basic patterns according to their use of consonant and vowels sounds: (CVC, CVVC, CVCe, CV, man, mean, mane, me). Keep in mind that a “C,” or consonant in these patterns may be a single consonant, digraph, blend, or cluster. Polysyllabic words can be broken down by syllable patterns (hopping = cvc-cvc, hoping = cv-cvc)

30
Q

vowel digraph

A

two vowels together that make one phoneme or sound (bread, need, book, field)

31
Q

y as a vowel rule

A

if y is the only vowel sound at the end of a one-syllable word, y has the sound of long i; if y is the only vowel at the end of a word of more than one syllable, y has a sound almost like long e

32
Q

Syllabification

A

The division of words into syllables, either in speech or in writing.

33
Q

Morpheme

A

The smallest unit of a word that provides a specific meaning to a string of letters (which is called a phoneme)

34
Q

Phoneme Categorization

A

In this strategy, the teacher compiles a small sequence of similar words and asks students to identify the word that has a different or “odd” sound compared to the rest of the words.

35
Q

Phoneme segmentation

A

the ability to break words down into individual sounds. For example, a child may break the word “sand” into its component sounds – /sss/, /aaa/, /nnn/, and /d/.

36
Q

Phoneme Deletion

A

involves having students manipulate. spoken words by deleting specific phonemes

37
Q

Phoneme identification

A

the ability to identify words that begin with the same sound