# 1. Introduction Flashcards Preview

## Stats > 1. Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1. Introduction Deck (65)
1
Q

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

Students in my statistics class are, on average, 23 years old.

A

Descriptive statistics because it describes sets of actual observations.

2
Q

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

The population of the world exceeds 7 billions (that is, 7,000,000,000 or 1 million multiplied by 7000)

A

Inferential statistics because it generalizes beyond sets of actual observations.

3
Q

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

Either four or eight years have been the most frequent terms of office actually served by U.S. presidents.

A

Descriptive statistics because it describes sets of actual observations.

4
Q

Descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?

Sixty-four percent of all college students favor right-to-abortion laws.

A

Inferential statistics because it generalizes beyond sets of actual observations.

5
Q

Population

A

Any complete collection of observations or potential observations.

6
Q

Sample

A

Any smaller collection of actual observations from a population.

7
Q

Random Sampling

A

A procedure designed to ensure that each potential observation in the population has an equal chance of being selected in a survey.

8
Q

Random Assignment

A

A procedure designed to ensure that each person has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment.

9
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Random Assignment

A

Experiment

10
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Representative

A

Survey

11
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Generalization to the population

A

Survey

12
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Control group

A

Experiment

13
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Real difference

A

Experiment

14
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Random selection

A

Survey

15
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

Convenience sample

A

Experiment

16
Q

Is this term associated primarily with a survey or an experiment?

volunteers

A

Experiment

17
Q

Data

A

A collection of actual observations or scores in a survey or an experiment.

18
Q

Qualitative Data

A

A set of observations where any single observation is a word, letter, or numerical code that represents a class or category.

Yes/No
Y/N
0/1

19
Q

Ranked Data

A

A set of observations where any single observation is a number that indicates relative standing.

1st, 2nd…

20
Q

Quantitative Data

A

A set of observations where any single observation is a number that represents an amount or a count.

21
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

ethnic group

A

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

22
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

age

A

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

23
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

family size

A

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

24
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

A

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

25
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

sexual preference

A

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

26
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

IQ score

A

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

27
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

net worth (dollars)

A

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

28
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

third-place finish

A

ranked because it’s a number representing relative standing

29
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

gender

A

qualitative because it’s a word representing a class or category

30
Q

Is it qualitative, ranked or quantitative?

temperature

A

quantitative because it’s a number representing an amount or a count.

31
Q

Level of Measurement

A

Specifies the extent to which a number (or word or letter) actually represents some attribute and, therefore, has implications for the appropriateness of various arithmetic operations and statistical procedures.

32
Q

Nominal Measurement

A

Words, letters, or numerical codes of qualitative data that reflect differences in kind based on classification.

33
Q

Ordinal Measurement

A

Relative standing of ranked data that reflects differences in degree based on order.

34
Q

Interval/Ratio Measurement

A

Amounts or counts of quantitative data that reflect differences in degree based on equal intervals and a true zero.

35
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

height

A

interval/ratio

36
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

religious affiliation

A

nominal

37
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

score for psychopathic tendency

A

Approximately interval

38
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

years of education

A

interval/ratio

39
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

military rank

A

ordinal

40
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

vocational goal (objectif professionnel)

A

nominal

41
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

GPA

A

Approximately interval

42
Q

Indicate the level of measurement attained by the following sets of observations or data. When appropriate, indicate that measurement is only approximately interval.

marital status

A

nominal

43
Q

Variable

A

A characteristic or property that can take on different value.

44
Q

Constant

A

A characteristic or property that can take on only one value.

45
Q

Discrete Variable

A

A variable that consists of isolated numbers separated by gaps.

46
Q

Continuous Variable

A

A variable that consists of numbers whose values, at least in theory, have no restrictions.

47
Q

Approximate Numbers

A

Numbers that are rounded off, as is always the case with values for continuous variables.

48
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

litter of mice (une portée de souris)

A

discrete

49
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

cooking time for pasta

A

continuous

50
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

parole violations by convicted felons

A

discrete

51
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

IQ

A

continuous

52
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

age

A

continuous

53
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

population of your hometown

A

discrete

54
Q

Indicate whether this quantitative observation is discrete or continuous.

speed of a jetliner

A

continuous

55
Q

Experiment

A

A study in which the investigator decides who receives the special treatment.

56
Q

Independent Variable

A

The treatment manipulated by the investigator in an experiment.

57
Q

Dependent Variable

A

A variable that is believed to have been influenced by the independent variable.

58
Q

Observational Study

A

A study that focuses on detecting relationships between variables not manipulated by the investigator.

59
Q

Confounding Variable

A

An uncontrolled variable that compromises the interpretation of a study.

60
Q

Is it an experiment or an observational study? If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.

years of education and annual income

A

Observational study

61
Q

Is it an experiment or an observational study? If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.

prescribed hours of sleep deprivation and subsequent amount of REM (dream) sleep

A

Experiment

Independent variable: prescribed hours of sleep deprivation)

62
Q

Is it an experiment or an observational study? If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.

weight loss among obese males who choose to participate either in a weight-loss program or a self-esteem enhancement program

A

Experiment

Independent variable: two programs;

Possible confounding variable: self-selection of program

63
Q

Is it an experiment or an observational study? If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.

estimated study hours and subsequent test score

A

Observational study

64
Q

Is it an experiment or an observational study? If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.

recidivism among substance abusers assigned randomly to different rehabilitation programs

A

Experiment

Independent variable: different rehabilitation programs

65
Q

Is it an experiment or an observational study? If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.

subsequent GPAs of college applicants who, as the result of a housing lottery, live either on campus or off campus

A

Experiment

Independent variable: on campus or off campus