Concepts and Terminology Flashcards Preview

MBBS - Anatomy > Concepts and Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Concepts and Terminology Deck (35)
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1
Q

Describe the anterior region of the body

A

2
Q

Describe the posterior region of the body

A
3
Q

List the anatomical planes of the body

A

Coronal plane

Sagittal plane

Prasagittal plane

Transverse/horizontal plane

4
Q

Describe coronal plane

A

Orientated vertically and divide the body into anterior and posterior parts

5
Q

Desrcibe sagittal planes

A

oriented vertically but are at right angles to the coronal planes and divide the body into right and left parts.

6
Q

Describe medial sagittal plane

A

The plane that pases through the centre of the body dividing it into equal right and left halves

7
Q

Describe the parasagittal plane

A

A plane situated along side the medial plane

8
Q

Describe transverse/horizontal plane

A

Divide the body into superior and inferior parts

9
Q

What are the terms used to describe location relative to the body/other parts

A
  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Medial
  • Lateral
  • Superior
  • Inferior
10
Q

a) Describe the term anteroior
b) Describe the term posterior

A

a) Describes the position of structures relative to the “front” of the body
b) Describe the postition os structures relative to the “back” of the body

11
Q

a) Describe the anatomical term medial
b) Describe the anatomical term lateral

A

a) Describes the postion of structures relative to the median sagittalplane
b) Describes the position of the side of the body/away from the midline

12
Q

a) Describe the anatomical term ‘superior’
c) Describe the anatomical term ‘inferior’

A

a) Towards the head - in refernce to the vertical axis
b) Towards the feet - in reference to to the vertical axis

13
Q

Describe the anatomical terms used to describe location on limbs

A
  1. Proximal - the nearer the area to the point of attachment the more PROXIMAL it is
  2. Distal - the further the area to the point of attachment the more DISTAL it is
14
Q

a) What terms are used to describe the relative positions of two structures with rspect to the surface of the body (depth)
b) What do they mean?

A

a) 1. Deep
2. Superficial
b) 1. Deep = deeper and less close to surface
2. Superficial =shallower (less deep and closer to surface)

15
Q

Describe 3 main roles of the skeleton

A
  • Provides support for soft tissues
  • Protects internal organs
  • Aids body movements
16
Q

a) What is a joint?
b) Describe 4 main types of joints in the body

A

a) The articulation where a bone meets another bone
b) 1. Bony joints - the bones are cnnected by bone
2. Fibrous joints - the bones are connected by fibres
3. Carilaginous joints - the bones are connected by cartilage
4. Synovial joints

17
Q

What type of joint are all major joints of the limb?

A

Synovial joints

18
Q

Describe the structure of a synovial joint

A
  • The smooth articular surfaces of the bones are covered in hyaline cartilage
  • A joint capsule surrounds the joint and usually contains supoortavie ligaments
  • Inside the joint capsule is lined by synovial membrane
  • Synovial membrane secretes synovial fulid
19
Q

What is the main role of the synovial fluid?

A

To nourish and protect the joint

20
Q

a) How many major synovial joint are there?
b) How are they classified?

A

a) 6
b) By the shape of the bones, forming the joint, as well as the movement available at each joint

21
Q

Name the 6 major types of synovial joints and give an example for each

A
  1. Hinge joint e.g. elbow, knww
  2. Ball and socket e.g. gleno-humeral joint
  3. Saddle joint e.g. CMC joint of thumb
  4. Pivot joint e.g. radioulnar joint
  5. Plane/Gliding e.g. inetrcarpal joints
  6. Ellipsoid e.g. intercarpal joints
22
Q

Name the synovial joint

A
23
Q

Describe a muscle

A

Muscle is a tissue that genertaed movemevent by contracting or relaxing

24
Q

How do muscles move joint

A
  • To have an action, a msucle must have at least two attachment
  • a muscle will have an action att every joint it crosses
25
Q

What are the two main divisions of the nervous system

A

Central nervous system (CNS - brain and spinal cord)

Peripheral nervous system (everything else)

26
Q

Describe the two functional division of the nervous system

A
  1. Somatic nervous system - concerned with voluntary control of body
  2. Autonomic nervous system - regulates unconcious functions
27
Q

a) Describe the role of arteries
b) Blood through the arteries are at a high blood pressure. How are arteries adapted to the high pressure of blood?

A

a) Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart ( A for away)
b) Arterial walls are thick with msucles and elastic fibres to support them

28
Q

a) What is the role of veins?
b) Blood is at a low pressure in the veins. How are veins adapted to the low pressure?

A

a) Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart (veINs)
b) 1. Walls are relatively thin
2. Valves to ensure blood travels in one directon

29
Q

a) Desrcibe flexion
b) Describe extension

A

a) Movement that decreases the angle between two structures, causing the structures to bend or move closer together
b) Movement that increases the angle between two structures, causing the structures to straighten or move apart

30
Q

a) Perform flexion and extension of the knee
b) Perfom flexion and extension of the shoulder
c) Describe the flexion and extension of the neck
d) Desrcibe the flexion and extension of the hip
e) Describe the flexion and extension of the ankle

A

c) neck flexion = head foward + neck extension = head backword
d) hip flexion = kick leg forward + hip extension = kick leg back
e) ankle flexion = feet down + ankle extension = feet up

31
Q

a) Describe abduction
b) Describe adduction

A

a) move away from centre
b) move towards centre

32
Q

a) Describe medial rotation of the hip
b) Describe medial rotation of the shoulder

A

a) Twist foot in
b) Hand towards middle of the body

33
Q

a) Describe lateral rotation of the hip
b) Describe lateral rotation of the shoulder

A

a) Twist foot outwards
b) Hand away from middle of the body

34
Q

a) Perform pronation of the elbow
b) Perform supination of the elbow

A

a) back (prosterior) of hand
b) palm of hand

35
Q

a) Describe inversion of the ankle
b) Describe eversion of the ankle

A

a) Sole of foot inwards
b) Sole of foot outwards