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Flashcards in 11/19 Test Deck (128):
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Synesthesia

(noun) when one kind of sensory stimulus evokes the subjective experience of another

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Wit

(noun) intellectually amusing man gag that surprises and delights

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Infantile

(adj.) childish

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Acquit

(verb) judgment that a person is not guilty of the crime with which the person has been charged

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Squalid

(adj.) extremely dirty and unpleasant, especially as a result of poverty or neglect

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Formidable

(adj.) inspiring fear or respect through being impressively large, powerful, intense, or capable

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Turbulent

(adj.) characterized by conflict, disorder, or confusion; not controlled or calm

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Fluctuation

(noun) an irregular rising and falling in number or amount; a variation

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Subsequent

(adverb) coming after something in time; following

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Metonymy

(noun) figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it

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Periodic Sentence

(noun) present its central meaning in a main clause at the end * opposite of loose sentence

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Syllogism

(noun) three part deductive argument, consisting of a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion

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Synecdoche

(noun) figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or vice versa

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Listless

(adj.) lacking the energy to do something

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Sedentary

(adj.) lacking physical activity

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Ponderous

(adj.) heavy, slow, serious

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Prosaic

(adj.) unimaginative, matter-of-fact

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Metaphor

(noun) figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things without the use of comparison words

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Implied Metaphor

(noun) does not state explicitly the two terms of the comparison

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Dead Metaphor

(noun) an overused metaphor that is no longer vivid

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Local Color

(noun) term applied to fiction or poetry which tends to place special emphasis on a particular setting, including its customs, clothing, dialect, and landscape

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Dilettante

(noun) an amateur without serious intentions or knowledge

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Facile

(adj.) done or achieved easily

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Plausible

(adj.) apparently reasonable or valid

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Torpor

(noun) state of inactivity

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Indolent

(adj.) not inclined to physical activity or difficult work, lazy

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Atrophy

(verb) to waste away through lack of use

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Epistrophe

(noun) device of repetition in which the same expression is repeated at the end of two or more lines * opposite of anaphora

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Semantics

(noun) branch of linguistics that studies words and their meanings, developments, connotations, and relation to one another

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Lucid

(adj.) expressed clearly, easy to understand

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Conception

(noun) the ability to understand or form a thought

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Cogent

(adj.) convincing, persuasive

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Adroit

(adj.) skillful, adept

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Wily

(adj.) skilled in the art of deception

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Pragmatic

(adj.) concerned with practical matters

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Absolutes

(noun) adverbial clause that has a non-finite verb or no verb at all

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Florid

(adj.) elaborately or excessively decorated

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Gilded

(adj.) given a deceptively attractive appearance

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Sumptuous

(adj.) of a size of quality that suggests great expense

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Dilatory

(adj.) tending to postpone or delay something

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Apathy

(noun) a lack of emotion of feeling

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Prose

(noun) used in non/fiction in which the printer determines the length of the line * often found in poetry

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Opulent

(adj.) deluxe; rich and superior

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Ostentatious

(adj.) intended to attract notice and impress others

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Aesthetic

(adj.) having to do with beauty

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Austere

(adj.) having no adornment, bare

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Atmosphere

(noun) emotional mood created by the entirety of the literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described

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Diacope

(noun) repetition of a word/phrase after an intervening word/phrase * word/phrase, ..., word/phrase

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Hypophora, Antipophora

(noun) where author asks a question and then answers it

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Litotes

(noun) figure of speech which employs an understatement by using double negatives

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Despotic

(adj.) absolute ruler, tyrannical

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Hypocrisy

(noun) proclaim beliefs, feelings, or virtues that one does not hold

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Reprehensible

(adj.) deserving of criticism; blameworthy; malicious

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Egregious

(adj.) bad or offensive; almost lewd

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Testimony

(noun) evidence or proof provided by the existence of appearance of something

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Deductive Reasoning

(noun) process of reasoning using strong premises/claims to reach a logical conclusion * A=B & B=C, then A=C

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Inductive Reasoning

(noun) reasoning that takes specific information and makes a broader generalization that is considered probable, allowing for the fact that the conclusion may not be accurate * A=B & B sometimes =C, then A may = C

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Euphemism

(noun) more agreeable of less offensives substitute for a generally unpleasant word of concept

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Extended Metaphor

(noun) metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work

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Homily

(noun) literally "sermon" but informally or a lecture involving moral or spiritual advice

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Perpetuate

(verb) make something (undesirable situation or unfounded belief) continue indefinitely

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Eclectic

(adj.) deriving ideas, style, or tastes from a broad and diverse range of sources

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Sentimental Appeals

(emotional fallacy) use emotion to distract the audience from the facts

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Red Herrings

(emotional fallacy) use misleading or unrelated evidence to support a conclusion * diversionary tactic

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Scare Tactics

(emotional fallacy) try to frighten people into agreeing with the arguer by threatening them or predicting unrealistically dire consequences

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Bandwagon Appeals, Ad Populum

(emotional fallacy) encourage an audience to agree with the writer because everyone else is doing so

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Slippery Slope

(emotional fallacy) arguments suggest that one thing will lead to another, oftentimes with disastrous results * if A, then Z; skips B-Y

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Either/Or Choices

(emotional fallacy) reduce complicated issues to only two possible courses of action

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False Need

(emotional fallacy) arguments create an unnecessary desire for things

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Genetic Arguments

(emotional fallacy) based on origin of a person, idea, institute,or theory to determine its character, nature, or worth

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False Authority

(ethical fallacy) asks audience to agree with the assertion of a writer based simply on his/her character or the authority of another person/institution who may not fully qualified to offer that assertion

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Using Authority Instead of Evidence

(ethical fallacy) occurs when someone offers personal authority as proof

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Guilt by Association

(ethical fallacy) call someone's character into question by examining the character of that person's associates

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Dogmatism

(ethical fallacy) shuts down discussion by asserting that the writer's beliefs are the only acceptable ones

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Moral Equivalence

(ethical fallacy) compares minor problems with much more serious crimes, or vice versa

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Ad Hominem

(ethical fallacy) arguments attack a person's character rather than that person's reasoning

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Strawman

(ethical fallacy) arguments set up and often dismantle easily refutable arguments in order to misrepresent an opponent's argument in order to defeat him/her

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A Hasty Generalization

(logical fallacy) draws conclusions from scanty evidence

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Faulty Casualty, Post Hoc, Causation Fallacy

(logical fallacy) arguments confuse chronology with causation: one event can occur after another without being caused by it * same time does not mean related events

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A Non Sequitur, "It Doesn't Follow"

(logical fallacy) statement that does not logically relate to what comes before it; important logical step may be missing

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An Equivocation

(logical fallacy) half-truth; statement that is partially correct but that purposely obscures the entire truth

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Begging the Question, Circular Argument

(logical fallacy) occurs when a writer simply restates the claim in a different way

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A Faulty Analogy

(logical fallacy) an inaccurate, inappropriate, or misleading comparison between two things

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Stacked Evidence

(logical fallacy) represents only one side of the issue, thus distorting it

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Anecdote

(rhetorical) (evidence) brief story or tale told by a character in a piece of literature

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Oxymoron

(rhetorical) figure of speech that combines to apparently contradictory elements

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Allusion

(rhetorical) figure of speech which makes brief, even casual reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object to create a resonance in the reader or to apply a symbolic meaning to the character or object of which the allusion consists

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Satire

(rhetorical) a literary style used to make fun of or ridicule an idea of human vice/weakness

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Parody

(rhetorical) satirical imitation of a work of art for purpose of ridiculing its style or subject

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Sarcasm

(rhetorical) a sharp caustic remark; form of verbal irony in which apparent praise is actually bitter or harshly critical

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Paradox

(rhetorical) statement that seems contradictory, but is actually true

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Epiphany

(rhetorical) sudden or intuitive insight or perception into the reality of essential meaning or something usually brought on by a simple or common occurrence or experience

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Onomatopoeia

(rhetorical) a word capturing or approximating the sound of what it describes

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Hyperbole

(rhetorical) overstatement characterized by exaggerated language

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Didactic

(rhetorical) intended for teaching or to teach a moral lesson

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Colloquial

(rhetorical) ordinary language; the vernacular

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Juxtaposition

(rhetorical) placing of two items side by side to create a certain effect, reveal an attitude, or accomplish some other purspose

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Parallelism

(rhetorical) grammatical/rhetorical framing of words/phrases/sentences/paragraphs to give structural simlilarity

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Anaphora

(rhetorical) regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases/clauses * opposite of epistrophe

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Imagery

(rhetorical) sensory details in a work; use of figurative language to evoke a feelings, call to mind an idea, or describe an object

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Allegory

(rhetorical) narrative form in which characters and actions have meanings outside themselves

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Analogy

(rhetorical) (evidence) comparison of two things that are alike in some respects

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Nostalgia

(rhetorical) desire to return in thought or fact to a former time

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Propaganda

(rhetorical) information or tumor deliberately spread to help or harm a person, group, or institution

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Motif

(rhetorical) recurrent device, formula, or situation that often serves as a signal for the appearance of a character or event

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Realism

(rhetorical) the literary practice of attempting to describe life and nature without idealization and with attention to detail

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Invective

(rhetorical) the use of angry and insulting language in satirical writing

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Persona

(rhetorical) the voice or figure of the author who tells and structures the story and who may (not) share the values of the actual author

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Connotation

(rhetorical) what is implied by a word

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Abstract

(rhetorical) an abbreviated synopsis of a longer work of scholarship or research

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Ambiguity

(rhetorical) multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage

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Alliteration

(rhetorical) repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants in two or more neighboring words; reinforce meaning, unify ideas, supply a musical sound

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Antecedent

(rhetorical) word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun

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Asyndeton

(rhetorical) consists of omitting conjunctions between word, phrases, or clauses

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Polysyndeton

(rhetorical) stylistic device in which several conjunctions are used in order to achieve an artistic effect

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Antithesis

(rhetorical) figure of balance in which two contrasting ideas are intentionally juxtaposed, usually through parallel structure; contrasting of opposing ideas in adjacent phrases, clauses, or sentences

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Factual Example

(evidence) example or statement presented as a reliable "fact" to support the author's main idea, although there is no source offered to prove its truth

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Historical Fact

(evidence) historical example or event that is widely accepted as true

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Expert Testimony

(evidence) either a quotation, paraphrase, or summary from an individual person or professional agency with expertise/experience/knowledge of the topic

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Statistic

(evidence) evidence that cites specific numbers/percentages/dates; may (not) be a part of expert testimony

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Personal Experience

(evidence) story from the author's personal history or observations

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Scientific Study, Experimental Results

(evidence) findings or results of a scientific experiment or study

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Hypothetical

(evidence) a story about what could happen in the future

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Interviews/Witness, Participant Testimony

(evidence) quotations or statements from individuals who were involved in the event or situation being written about

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Primary Sources

(evidence) documents from a particular time period that provide evidence of people's viewpoints and actions during that time period * used only in history

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Commonly Held Assumption/Belief

(evidence) an inclusive statement presented about human nature or human behavior as if all readers would be in agreement with the author

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Author Opinion

(evidence) statement of the author's personal beliefs without proof

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Appeals

Ethos (ethics, character); Pathos (passion, emotion); Logos (logic, facts)