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1

what 3 molecules does ATP consist of

Adenine , ribose and 3 phosphate groups

2

Which group of molecules does ATP belong

nucleotides

3

what is atp

it is a universal energy currency , which releases energy in small quantities
(30.6 kj per mol)

4

what is chemiosmosis

the flow of protns down an electrochemical gradient , through ATP synthetase, coupled with the synthesis of ATP from ADP and a phosphate ion

5

ATP synthesis in mitrochondria
MECHANISM

mechanism- uses energy carried by electrons to pump protons across the membrane, they then flow back through stalked particles.

6

ATP synthesis in mitrochondria
ENZYME

ATP synthetase

7

ATP synthesis in mitrochondria
Site of electron transport chain

Cristae

8

ATP synthesis in mitrochondria
proton graident

from inner membrane space to matrix

9

ATP synthesis in mitrochondria
co-enzyme involved

FAD, NAD

10

ATP synthesis in mitrochondria
terminal electron acceptor

Oxygen and H+

11

ATP synthesis in Chloroplasts
mechanism

uses electron energy to pump protons across the membrane , which then flow back through stalked particles

12

ATP synthesis in Chloroplasts
enzyme involved

ATP synthetase

13

ATP synthesis in Chloroplasts
proton gradient

From thylakoid space to stroma

14

ATP synthesis in Chloroplasts
site of electron transport chain

Thylakoid membrane

15

ATP synthesis in Chloroplasts
co-enzyme involved

NADP

16

ATP synthesis in Chloroplasts
terminal electron acceptor

NADP and H+ (non cyclic photophosphorylation) and chlorophyll+ (cyclic photophosphorylation)

17

what is chemiosmosis

Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane bound structure, down their electrochemical gradient. An example of this would be the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis.

18

types of phosphorylation

1) oxidative phosphylation . this occurs when phosphate ion is added to ADP using energy from electron loss ie, oxidation reactions
2) Photophsphorylatiob. the energy that powers proton pump comes from electron transport chain in choloplasts it comes from light , hence ATP in chloroplatds is synthesised by photphosphorylation
3)substrate level phosphorylation. This occurs when the phophate groups are transferred from donor molecules , e.g phosphate is transferred from glycerate-3-phosphate to ADP in glycolysis in respoiration.

19

what is phosphorylation

is the addition of phophate group or ion to a molecule. In respiration and photosyntheis ADP is the molecule most often phosphoylated , but other molecules such as glucose in glycolysis can alo phosphoylated forming glucose diphosphate . This makes the glucose more reactive and easier to split as it lowers the activation energy of reaction involved.

20

how isATP made in mitrochondria

during photoshyntheis and respiration , ATP is made when protons are pumped across the membranes using energy from electrones to create an electrochemical or proton gradient. the protons flow back through the stalked particales down the concentration gradient , by chemiosmosis, hence phosphoralationg ADP into ATP

21

How is ATP made in chloplasts

This occursin the thylakoid membrane. The electrons pass from the proton pump into a terminal electron acceptor. in chloroplats this is the coenzyme NADP or chlrophyll..