Size of Russian Empire
1/6 of the entire world’s surface
Russian Empire ruled by …
Tsar Nicholas II part of the Romanov Dynasty
The ‘subject nationalities’
- Non-Russian Groups were known as ‘subject nationalities’
- The Russian Empire was difficult to rule because it was made up
of more than 20 ethnic groups
- 6 in 10 Russian was a foreign language
- Discontent due to ‘Russification’ this meant making non-russians
speak Russian, Wear Russian clothes and practice Russian
Discontent with the government
- Russia was an autocracy with the duma being the only
paliament which held little power
- 70% was Orthodox Christian and it heavily supported the Tsar
- Workers in the government were poorly paid and so it
encouraged bribery and corruption
- Russians had limited freedom being policied by spies and agents
and the Okhrana who would supress and root out anti-tsarists
The weakness of Tsar Nicholas II
- Became Tsar in 1894
- Famously said he did not want to become Tsar (Interpret as
wasn’t ready because he did believe in God given right to rule)
- Ignorant to the many complaints of the people
- Son Alexi had haemophilia, only male heir, so he was likely to die
- 85% of the population lived in the countryside
- 5% of land was suitable for farming due to extensive tundra
- Russia was late to modernise and so people were farming using
primitive farm tools, lead to many famines like the one in 1892
- Even though Russia had extensive oil and mineral supplies it did
not industrialise until the late 19th century.
- Ineffective banking system restricted growth of the economy.
- WW1 in 1914 did rapidly cause the industry in Russia to grow.
Russian society was divided into classes very heirarchical
The aristocracy made up the top 1% of the Russian population they were extremely rich and showed the disparity between the peasantry and aristocracy.
The Middle Class
After WW1 Tthe size of the middle class was growing due ti the sudden boom in Russian industry. They lived a pleasant live and consisted of bankers, merchants and such.
The largest and lowest class. Had a life expectancy of less than 40 years and would often die from typhus and diphtheria.