11 Salivary Gland Diseases Flashcards Preview

OMF Pathology > 11 Salivary Gland Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11 Salivary Gland Diseases Deck (78):
1

Any bump on the roof of the mouth is automatically considered to be what before exam/biopsy?

Salivary gland tumor

2

What is a mucocele?

leaking of mucin into soft tissues due to the rupturing of a salivary gland duct

(mostly caused by trauma)

3

What are common places to see a mucocele?

  1. Lower lip (81%)
  2. FOM
  3. anterior ventral tongue
  4. buccal mucosa

4

A clinical mucocele on the upper lip is more likely to be what?

A salivary gland tumor

5

A mucocele of the retromolar region is unusual and more often proven to be what?

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

6

What is this?

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Mucocele

7

How would you treat this?

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Surgical excision of the mucocele and adjacent (minor) salivary glands

8

If left untreated, what can a mucocele eventually become?

A fibroma

9

What is this?

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mucocele

10

What is this called?

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Ranula (mucocele on FOM or sublingual)

11

What can happen if this is left untreated and it continues to grow in size?

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Called a "Plunging Ranula" it will dissect the mylohyoid and continue into the mediastinum to slowly suffocate the patient

12

Pt says they used to have a big bump under their tongue. What happened?

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Plunging Ranula dissected mylohyoid

13

Upon biopsy it shows an epithelium-lined cavity. What is this soft fluctuant swelling?

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Salivary duct cyst (aka mucous retention cyst)

14

What are common places to see salivary duct cysts?

  1. Parotid gland
  2. FOM
  3. Buccal mucosa
  4. Lips

15

Salivary duct cysts occur mostly in ________ whereas mucoceles occur more often in __________.

adults, children

16

What is a sialolith?

A calicification (stone) in the salivary duct

17

What are the three most common places to find a sialolith?

  1. Submandibular gland
  2. Upper lip
  3. Buccal mucosa

18

What is this artifact seen on this CT scan?

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A sialolith

19

Why is the submandibular gland most likely to develop a sialolith?

It has the longest, most tortuous duct for saliva to go through on its way to the mouth

20

What are some possible causes of sialoliths?

  1. Mucous plug
  2. Bacterial colonies
  3. Chronic duct blockage phenomena
  4. Normal ductal anatomy (Wharton’s duct)
  5. Xerostomia

21

What is that?

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Sialolith

22

What is this? How do you get it out if near the surface?

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  1. Sialolith
  2. "milk" it out of the duct or surgical excision if too deep

23

What is the definition of Sialadenitis?

An inflammation of the salivary gland

24

What is a viral infection that can cause sialadenitis?

Mumps - caused by paramyxovirus

25

What are some non-infectious causes of sialadenitis?

  • Sjögren syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis, granulomatous inflammation
  • Radiation induced
  • Recent surgery
  • Allergic reaction
  • Obstruction of the salivary duct

26

What is sialadenosis?

non-inflammatory, asymptomatic enlargement of the salivary glands (usually bilateral)

27

What are some underlying systemic conditions that can cause sialadenosis?

diabetes mellitus, general malnutrition, bulimia

hypothyroidism, pregnancy, alcoholism, anorexia, anti-hypertensive drugs, psychotropic drugs

28

Pt is in third trimester. What could this be?

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Sialadenosis (salivary gland enlargement)

29

Upon palpation you find the parotid glands are enlarged but still feel soft. What is this termed?

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Sialadenosis

30

Describe Adenomatoid Hyperplasia of the Minor Salivary Glands.

Localized, sessile, painless swelling of minor salivary glands (usually on hard/soft palate) that mimics a neoplasm. Typically hyperplasia of gland.

31

What are your first thoughts? (Give a differential diagnosis of two things.)

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  1. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands
  2. Salivary gland tumor

32

There are more cells in this frame than regularly seen in a salivary gland. What pathogenesis does this fall under?

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Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary gland(s)

- hyperplasia is seen in this histo slide

33

What is necrotizing sialometaplasia?

Locally destructive inflammatory condition of the salivary glands believed to be due from ischemia (other causes)

34

What could a dentist cause if they inject anesthetic too quickly under the periosteum of the palate?

Necrotizing sialometaplasia

35

What is this?

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necrotizing sialometaplasia

36

How long does it take Necrotizing Sialometaplasia to resolve/heal?

5-6 weeks

37

Person has hitory of anorexia. What is this?

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Necrotizing sialometaplasia

38

Give two possible diagnoses for this.

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  1. necrotizing sialometaplasia (will heal in 5-6 weeks)
  2. malignancy (continues to grow)

Watch for a week. If it gets smaller then it's #1.

39

Define Cheilitis glandularis.

Swelling and eversion of the lower lip due to hypertrophy and inflammation of minor salivary glands

40

What is this? What can give it away?

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  1. Cheilitis Glandularis
  2. "weeping" of minor salivary glands

41

What is this salivary gland pathology?

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Cheilitis glandularis

42

Someone with a sialolith will usually complain of what symptom?

Having pain or swelling upon eating

43

What is excessive salivation called?

Sialorrhea

44

What are some possible causes of Sialorrhea?

  • GERD
  • Local irritations
  • Cholenergic agonists
  • Lithium
  • etc

45

Xerostomia is a common problem in ____% of adults.

25%

46

What are clinical signs of xerostomia?

  • fissured tongue
  • dry lips
  • mucosal tissue is sticky after wiping dry

47

What are three complications of xerostomia?

  1. altered taste
  2. higher risk of cervical or root caries
  3. candidiasis

48

What are some known causes of xerostomia?

medications, radiation therapy, caffeine/alcohol, smoking, Sjögren's syndrome, diabetes, sarcoidosis

49

What is an autoimmune disease mainly affecting salivary and lacrimal glands?

Sjögren's syndrome

50

What are three common symptoms seen in Sjögren's syndrome patients?

  1. xerostomia
  2. xerophthalmia
  3. arthralgia

51

What are three criteria to meet to diagnose Sjögren's syndrome?

  1. Positive autoantibodies to Ro(SS-A) and/or La(SS-B) antigens
    1. Or positive rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody titer
  2. labial salivary gland biopsy showing focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (≥1 focus/4mm2)
  3. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca w/ ocular staining score ≥3

52

People with Sjögren's syndrome have a 40x greater risk of getting ___________. 

Lymphoma

53

What are the most common sites to have a salivary neoplasm?

  1. Parotid gland (64-80%)
  2. Minor glands
  3. Submandibular
  4. Sublingual

54

Of the three major salivary glands, which one is more likely to be malignant if it had a salivary neoplasm?

Sublingual (~70%)

55

Of all minor salivary gland neoplasms, which location in the mouth has the highest rate of malignancy?

Retromolar pad (90% are malignant)

Tongue is close second w/ 85%

56

Of all minor salivary gland neoplasms, which location is most likely to have a benign neoplasm?

Upper lip (80% are benign)

57

Are minor salivary gland neoplasms more common in upper lip or lower lip?

Upper lip is more common, but lower lip is more likely to be malignant.

58

What is the most common benign neoplasm overall?

Pleomorphic adenoma (benign) - most common in parotid

59

What is the most common malignant neoplasm overall?

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (parotid most common site)

60

What are four benign salivary gland neoplasms to know?

  1. Canalicular adenoma
  2. Pleomorphic adenoma
  3. Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum)
  4. Oncocytoma

61

Canalicular adenoma occurs exclusively in _______ salivary glands.

Minor

62

If your patient is >60 yrs old and has a benign salivary gland neoplasm, it is more likely to be what kind?

canalicular adenoma

63

if your patient is <50 yrs old and has a benign salivary gland neoplasm, it is more likely to be what kind?

pleomorphic adenoma

64

T or F: Benign salivary gland tumors are typically encapsulated in connective tissue.

True

65

Pleomorphic adenomas are most commonly seen where overall?

parotid gland

66

Pleomorphic adenomas are most commonly seen where if in a minor salivary gland?

Palate

67

Oncocytoma occurs mainly in _______ salivary glands.

Major

68

Oncocytoma get it's name from what histologic feature?

Oncocytes: large epithelial cells

69

What is the second most common benign tumor of the parotid gland?

Warthin's tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum)

70

Who has an 8-fold higher risk of developing warthin's tumor?

smokers

71

Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum is almost exclusively seen in the ________ gland.

Parotid

72

What are the two most common malignant salivary neoplasms?

  1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
  2. Acinic cell adenocarcinoma

73

What is malignant ectopic salivary gland tissue that was developmentally entrapped in the jaw?

Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

74

What is a common site to see Intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma?

The angle of the mandible

75

Histologically, this acinic cell adenocarcinoma will show what taking over the salivary gland?

Acinar cells

76

What is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor of the submandibular gland?

Adenoid cystic carcinoma

77

Why is the long-term survival rate with adenoid cystic carcinoma so low?

The tumor metastesises in the neurons and spreads out through the nerves, making total removal impossible

78

Not occurring on the midline and affecting minor salivary glands of the palate, what might this be?

Polymorphous Low-grade Adenocarcinoma