1.1.1 Basic Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.1.1 Basic Psychology Deck (100):
1

Digit span test is administered to a patient with suspected cognitive impairment. Normal reverse digit span in a working age adult isSelect one:10 ± 2 digits7 ± 1 digits7 ± 2 digits5 ± 2 digits4 ± 3 digits

Normal forward span is 7 ± 2 digits; while the normal reverse span is 5 ± 2 digits.The correct answer is: 5 ± 2 digits

2

Skinner's operant conditioning is based on which of the following principles?Select one:An association is learnt without overt behavioural expressionA response gets paired with a consequenceA response gets paired with its probabilityA response gets paired with an inernal stimulusA stimulus gets paired with a response

Skinner believed that the best way to understand behaviour is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning.The correct answer is: A response gets paired with a consequence

3

Situation specific amnesia may arise in all of the following situations exceptSelect one:Post traumatic stress disorderAdjustment disorderBeing the victim of an offenceBeing the victim of childhood sexual abuseCommitting an offence

Situation specific amnesia has not been reported in patients with adjustment disorder. Offenders as well as victims of crimes commonly claim amnesia regarding the offence. Cross sectional studies have found that in 25-45% of homicides, 8% of other violent crimes and a small percentage of non-violent crimes, offenders claim for the offence (Kopelman 2002a). Amnesia for an offence can also occur in alcohol intoxication, substance misuse and acute psychosis but purely psychological amnesia occurs most commonly in crimes of passion. In people with PTSD Anterograde memory dysfunction has been demonstrated in people with PTSD and there are claims that they have a loss of hippocampal volume on MRI (Bremmer 1999), which has been attributed to effects of glucocorticoids (Markowitsch 1996). (Excerpt from Psychogenic amnesia, http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/15/2/152 (accessed April 13, 2015)).The correct answer is: Adjustment disorder

4

All of the following are deficiency needs exceptSelect one:Aesthetic needsSafety needsPhysiological needsLove and belonging needsEsteem needs

Maslow identified deficiency needs called D motives and growth needs (being) needs called B motives. He proposed a hierarchy of human needs with phylogenic and ontogenic evolution through the hierarchy. The needs become less biological as one ascends through the hierarchy. He described six sets, often represented by a pyramid, with physiological needs at the bottom and self actualization needs at the apex. Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love and belonging needs and Esteem needs are referred to as deficiency needs. The higher needs come into focus only when the lower needs are satisfied, at least to some extent.The correct answer is: Aesthetic needs

5

Wechsler Adult intelligence scales (WAIS-R) are for peopleSelect one:Aged 15 and over7 to 16 year oldsAged 18 and over3 to 7 year oldsAged 16 and over

Wechsler Adult intelligence scales-R is for those aged 16 and over. Wechsler Adult intelligence scales for children is for those aged 7 to 16 years. Wechsler preschool and primary intelligence is for 3 to 7.5 year old children.The correct answer is: Aged 16 and over

6

In studies on arousal levels related to different emotions, which emotion produces the maximum rise in temperature compared to all other emotions;Select one:SadnessDisgustAngerLoveFear

Anger- maximum rise in temperature. Fear and Disgust- drop in temperature. Studies on emotions have shown that the heart rate increase produced by sadness is usually greater than that produced by happiness.The correct answer is: Anger

7

In the alcoholic blackouts, the following type of memory loss is seen:Select one:Anterograde amnesia due to failure to consolidationRetrograde amnesiaDissociative amnesiaAnterograde amnesia due to failure to recallBoth retrograde and anterograde amnesia

A disruption in normal activity of hippocampus under the influence of alcohol can result in temporary failure of memory consolidation leading to anterograde amnesia for circumscribed periods. This is called as alcoholic blackout.The correct answer is: Anterograde amnesia due to failure to consolidation

8

Which of the following is true regarding processes that govern formation of various types of memory?Select one:Attention allows decoding long term memory storeLack of attention leads to forgettingAttention allows short-term memory to enter long-term memory storeAttention allows sensory memory to enter short term memory storeLack of attention leads to delay in recall

Attention is a key process that enables sensory memory traces to enter into short term memory.The correct answer is: Attention allows sensory memory to enter short term memory store

9

Which conditioning is involved in the aetiology of both agoraphobia and of obsessional rituals?Select one:Classical conditioningForced conditioningBackward conditioningOperant conditioningAvoidance conditioning

The term aversive conditioning refers to situations in which behavior is motivated by the threat of an unpleasant stimulus. There are two main categories of behavior under aversive control: avoidance behavior and escape behavior. Escape conditioning occurs when the animal learns to perform an operant to terminate an ongoing, aversive stimulus. It is a "get me out of here" or "shut this off" reaction, aimed at escape from pain. The behavior that produces escape is negatively reinforced (reinforced by the elimination of the unpleasant stimulus). For example, the jump of a rat from electrified platform onto a bowl of water is an escape behavior. Escape conditioning is converted into avoidance conditioning by giving a signal before the aversive stimulus starts. If the animal receives a cue or signal that an aversive stimulus is coming, then after one or two occurrences of the punishing stimulus the cue will trigger an avoidance behavior. This kind of learning occurs quickly and is very durable. For example, if you sounded a tone before you electrified the platform, after one or two trials the rat would respond to the tone by jumping into the water. It would not wait for the shock. Avoidance behaviors are very persistent even when there is no longer anything to avoid. The reason is that as a result of an avoidance reaction, one never experiences the aversive stimulus. But this serves as a negative reinforcement, providing a sense of relief. Because of this, avoidance behavior is self-reinforcing. (Excerpt from Avoidance and Escape Learning, Chapter 5: Conditioning, http://www.intropsych.com/ch05_conditioning/avoidance_and_escape_learning.html (accessed April 13, 2015))The correct answer is: Avoidance conditioning

10

A 24 year old woman develops significant fear of driving after having a relatively trivial road traffic accident. She avoids using cars even as a passenger. She has no symptoms of PTSD. Which of the following therapies is best suited for her needs?Select one:Brief focal dynamic psychotherapyCognitive analytic therapyInterpersonal therapyBehaviour therapyPsychoanalytic therapy

This is simple phobia for driving and not PTSD. So behaviour therapy is the correct option.The correct answer is: Behaviour therapy

11

In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments on dogs, which of the following served as the conditioned stimulus?Select one:FoodSalivaBellHungerDog

Pavlov's dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking bell nuise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder. (Excerpt from Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) | Learning Theories, http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html).The correct answer is: Bell

12

Tip of the tongue state is a well investigated example ofSelect one:Context dependent memoryBlockingEncoding failureFailure of prospective memoryState dependent memory

Sometimes people may have the experience that we know the answer we are seeking but cannot quite find it and this feeling is known as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, also abbreviated as TOT phenomenon. This is a well investigated example of Blocking, which is one of the 'retrieval failure' theories of forgetting. Blocking is said to occur when the subjects are unable to access information that they know exists in their memory despite great efforts at recalling even in the presence of retrieval cues. TOT states may last for few seconds or for a few days.The correct answer is: Blocking

13

People can only attend to one physical channel of information at a time'-Which theory of attention states this?Select one:Broadbent's filter theory of attentionCocktail party phenomenonDichotic listening experimentsAttenuator model of selective attentionShiffrin and Schneider's divided attention theory

Dichotic listening experiments show that alternative information is simultaneously processed and can be attended to if required. Here one kind of information is selected for attention and it is called as selective or focused attention. Broadbent conducted dichotic listening experiments and he suggested that "our mind can be conceived as a radio receiving many channels at once". He supposed that in brain there exists a type of audio filter in our brain that selects which channel we should pay attention to from the many kinds of sounds perceived. Broadbent proposed that the filter lies between the sensory buffer and short-term store (what is now called working memory) that prevents overloading memory. This is called Broadbent's filter theory.The correct answer is: Broadbent's filter theory of attention

14

A clinical psychologist performed digit span test and immediately asked the patient to count a three digit number backwards. What is this procedure called as?Select one:Brown Paterson TaskPrimacy effectRecency effectBaddeley and Hitch TaskCohen and Squire experiment

Under normal situations, the duration for which information is held in short term memory is usually 15 to 20 seconds. STM is also very fragile and information is lost quickly. Brown Paterson demonstrated that by 15 seconds the original material is completely forgotten. Brown Paterson task involves introducing distraction (such as counting a three digit number backwards) immediately after the digit span test in order to prevent rehearsal.The correct answer is: Brown Paterson Task

15

Which of the following is not a component of the Big Five Theory of personality?Select one:CapacityAgreeablenessOpennessNeuroticismExtraversion

The Big Five are five broad factors (dimensions) of personality traits. They include 1. Extraversion which encompasses more specific traits as talkative, energetic, and assertiveness. 2. Agreeableness which includes sympathtic, kind and affectionate approach. 3. Conscientiousness that includes traits such as being organized, thorough, and planful. 4. Neuroticism which includes traits like being tense, moody and anxious. 5. Openness to Experience which includes traits like having wide interests, being imaginative and insightful.(In short, the Big Five includes five traits, each beginning with the alphabets of the word OCEAN)The correct answer is: Capacity

16

Biofeedback can mainly modify which of the following functions?Select one:Gastrointestinal functionCardiovascular functionMusculoskeletal functionRespiratory functionCentral nervous system function

Biofeedback involves the transmission to subjects of information about biological functions. It can modify cardiovascular function and is a useful method of reducing muscle tension. It is a technique for controlling physiological responses by receiving information about these responses as they occur. Monitoring devices track physiological responses such as heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension and provide the person with feedback in the form of light or tone whenever they change the response in the desired direction. With practice, a person can learn to control all sorts of bodily functions predominantly through relaxation (Excerpt retrieved from http://www.abahe.co.uk/biofeedback-definition.html).The correct answer is: Cardiovascular function

17

Which of the following is not a part of the Big Five personality traits?Select one:CarefulnessOpennessAgreeablenessNeuroticismConscientiousness

Big Five traits (McCrae and Costa 1992) include OCEAN - Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. This has provided a unified framework for trait research. NEO decreases with age; AC increases with age.The correct answer is: Carefulness

18

The principle of combining separate pieces of information into one meaningful combination is called Select one:EncodingPrimacy effectChunkingSensory storageRecency effect

Chunking is a method of increasing the capacity of short-term memory by combining units or information (usually numbers) into chunks. By doing so, impressive feats of memory can result. For example the numbers 1,5,2,3,5.2,5,8,5,3,7,8 would normally overload our short term memory but if they are arranged into chunks 152, 352, 585, 378, they become a lot more manageable. The capacity of STM according to Miller is 7+/- 2, as evident while testing digit span. By chunking, larger information could be sorted into 7+/- 2 items and effectively stored.The correct answer is: Chunking

19

In a scientific experiment, a neutral stimulus (a bell) is paired with a stimulus (food) that produces an autonomic response (salivation). Which of the following learning mechanisms has been employed?Select one:Systematic desensitizationShapingchainingOperant conditioningClassical conditioning

Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning. It was first described by Ivan Pavlov working on the conditioned reflex. He was able to take an autonomic reflex (e.g., salivation to food) that was thought to be unconditioned and demonstrated that it could be conditioned to respond to a new stimulus (e.g., a bell) if the new stimulus was presented along with or prior to the unconditioned stimulus (food). After a number of such presentations, the new stimulus (bell) would elicit the autonomic unconditioned response.The correct answer is: Classical conditioning

20

The strategies to improve encoding includes all exceptSelect one:Using imageriesMnemonicsUsing primacy-Recency effectsCueingChunking

Strategies to improve encoding include - order and sorting info, chunking, mnemonics, using imageries, adding importance and salience to the info and using primacy-Recency effects. Retrieval can be helped by cueing and reinstatement of learning context. The more similar the retrieval situation is to the encoding situation, the better retrieval. This is called encoding specificity principle.The correct answer is: Cueing

21

The most important and common bedside test that is used in demonstrating age-associated memory impairment would be;Select one:Delayed recallOrientation to time and placeImmediate recallNaming objectsAttention and calculation

40% of individuals aged 65 and over show AAMI. Cognitive testing has demonstrated that memory for non-verbal material seems to be more affected by aging than memory for verbal material, and delayed recall is more affected than immediate recall. Here the subject is given a list of 20 words and then ask him or her to recall as many as possible in 20 minutes. Finally, the score is compared with standardised scores for the given age.The correct answer is: Delayed recall

22

Learned helplessness has been invoked to explain the aetiology of;Select one:Obsessive compulsive disordersPsychosomatic disordersAnxiety disordersPsychotic disordersDepressive disorders

Learned helplessness: This is the tendency of an organism to give up trying to avoid or escape from an unpleasant stimulus because in the past all their attempts at so doing had been frustrated. Dogs were given electric shocks and prevented from escaping but after repeated shocks the dogs would no longer try to escape, even when a fairly obvious means of escape was made available and this was invoked to explain the etiology of depression.The correct answer is: Depressive disorders

23

A 45-year-old man was admitted to the acquired brain injury unit with severe memory impairment. Which of the common clinical tests can be used to test his immediate memory?Select one:Recall of last mealRecall of distant personal eventsRecall of items after 5 minutesRecall of recent topics in newsDigit span

The terms used in psychology and psychiatry are somewhat different which could lead to some confusion. The terms used in psychology are short term memory (immediate memory in psychiatry) and long-term memory (recent memory and remote memory in psychiatry). Digit span tests immediate memory (STM). Recollection of a name and an address after 5 minutes is seen as a test of recent memory (which, in fact, is a part of LTM and should not be considered as a test of STM)The correct answer is: Digit span

24

Which is a form of negative reinforcement used in the treatment of alcohol dependence?Select one:Apomorphine treatmentAversion therapy using electric shockCovert sensitizationDisulfiramAlcoholics anonymous

The use of disulfiram - a deterrent agent (also called alcohol-sensitizing drug) - is a form of behavioural modification with negative reinforcement used in the treatment of alcohol dependence.The correct answer is: Disulfiram

25

All of the following are true with respect to coping process when faced with a life stressor exceptSelect one:In emotion-focused coping the individual alters his emotional self-appraisal to the stressful situationDuring primary appraisal the individual evaluates his resources to copeIn problem-focused coping the individual attempts to change the stressful situationIndividuals employ a variety of different strategies to copeThere is no universally best strategy for coping

Primary appraisal - the individual evaluates the stressor. Secondary appraisal - the individual evaluates his resources and options available to manage the stressful situation.The correct answer is: During primary appraisal the individual evaluates his resources to cope

26

Which of the following theorists proposed six basic emotions?Select one:EkmanLorenzCannon and BardJames and LangeAinsworth

According to Paul Ekman, the six basic emotions are sadness, happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. These emotions combine in different ways to form other emotions, including compassion, boredom, embarrassment, rage, hunger, and more.The correct answer is: Ekman

27

Information is held in the long term memory by the process ofSelect one:Rote rehearsalElaborative rehearsalMaintenance rehearsalRecency effectDisplacement of older memories

Rehearsal is supposed to be the transient control process that can aid maintenance of STM and transfer to LTM. Other control processes include encoding, retrieval strategies and decision to remember. Rehearsal may be maintenance/rote rehearsal or elaborative rehearsal where encoding is semantically elaborated or changed. Maintenance rehearsal is simple and refers to the repetition of items in one's mind and occasionally by verbal repetition (e.g., trying to remember a telephone number). Elaborative rehearsal involves more extensive understanding of the meaning of the material, a process involving long-term memory. It is proposed that rehearsal can take place at three levels of processing. Shallow processing where surface features are only rehearsed, phonemic processing where sound features are rehearsed or semantic processing where deeper encoding and meaning related associations are made. A higher level of processing depends on time available and nature of the material processed.The correct answer is: Elaborative rehearsal

28

Which of the following refers to the formation of initial memory traces?Select one:RetentionForgettingRetrievalStorageEncoding

In all operations involving memory, three different processes are thought to occur. Encoding; It leads to the formation of initial memory traces and receives information from the outside. The encoding is acoustic in short term memory and semantic in long term memory. Storage: Retention of information and maintenance. Retrieval; Accessing and recovering information from memory stores.The correct answer is: Encoding

29

Amnesic syndrome is characterised by a marked impairment inSelect one:Procedural memoryWorking memoryEpisodic memorySemantic memoryImplicit memory

The term amnesia refers to episodic memory loss.The correct answer is: Episodic memory

30

Which one of Maslow's hierarchy of needs represents the need to develop a sense of personal worth and competence and the need for recognition by others?Select one:Aesthetic and cognitive needsPhysiological needsSelf actualisation needsEsteem needsMotivation needs

Esteem needs- the need to develop a sense of personal worth and competence and the need for recognition by others. Aesthetic and cognitive needs- These are growth needs involving knowledge, understanding, beauty and symmetry. The need for self-actualisations is the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.. According to Maslow, the following characters are seen in self-actualizing people. They are Spontaneous in their ideas and actions, Creative. Interested in solving problems, Appreciate life, Have a system of internalized independent morality and can view all things in an objective manner.The correct answer is: Esteem needs

31

A reinforced operant response weakens when the reinforcement is ceased. This is called Select one:Stimulus decouplingStimulus sensitisationExtinctionStimulus discriminationStimulus incubation

Extinction is typically studied within the Pavlovian fear conditioning framework in which extinction refers to the reduction in a conditioned response (CR; e.g., fear response/freezing) when a conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., neutral stimulus/light or tone) is repeatedly presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., foot shock/loud noise) with which it has been previously paired.The correct answer is: Extinction

32

Which one of the following is a way of measuring personality along the dimensions of extroversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability?Select one:Rorschach ink blot testMinnesota multiphasic personality inventoryDraw a person testThematic apperception testEysenck Personality Inventory

EPI is a way of measuring personality along the dimensions of extroversion-introversion and neuroticism stability. The inventory also includes a lie scale.The correct answer is: Eysenck Personality Inventory

33

Mr. X was seen in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. He complains of absent-mindedness and is failing to take medications and keep appointments. This is due toSelect one:Failure of conditioningFailure of encodingFailure of context dependent memoryFailure of prospective memoryFailure of State dependent memory

Failure of prospective memory is a common cause of absent mindedness. Prospective memory is the ability to carry out particular actions or perform planned actions and appears to involve the prefrontal lobes of the brain. This is one of the findings/theories of retrieval failure.The correct answer is: Failure of prospective memory

34

Which one among the following is not one of the Gestalt principles of perception?Select one:SimilarityContinuityClosureFamiliarityProximity

The Gestalt principles of perception would include proximity, closure, similarity, continuity and symmetry. According to Gestalt principles, we tend to perceive whole objects rather than parts. The perceptual system in our brains employs these principles to enable us perceive unified forms rather than simple collections of unconnected images.The correct answer is: Familiarity

35

According to Ebbinghaus curve, there is a sharp drop in forgetting overSelect one:First eighteen hoursFirst seven daysFirst twenty four hoursFirst one monthFirst nine hours

Hermann Ebbinghaus plotted the forgetting curve by plotting proportion of words retained in memory against time. The curve shows a sharp drop over the first nine hours and particularly during the first hour. After nine hours, the rate of forgetting slows and declines little thereafter, even after the lapse of 31 days. The main findings from his and other studies are; Forgetting is maximum in the first few hours and the rate of forgetting gets less with time. Forgetting is never complete and some information is retained over longer periods of time, even for life. Recalling the material during the test period increases the probability of remembering items or events. Continuous motor skills such as cycling and swimming etc show no forgetting at all. But discrete motors kills such as typing are lost more quickly.The correct answer is: First nine hours

36

Mr. X mentioned that he has vivid memories of where he was, what he was doing and was even able to remember other fine details, when he heard the news of suicide bombing of the twin towers in 2001. These memories have been termed asSelect one:Selective memoryFlashbulb memoriesAutobiographical memoryProcedural memorySemantic memory

Episodic memory is autobiographical, self-focussed spatio-temporal memory. Flashbulb memory is a special episodic memory where people remember clearly where and what they were doing at times of specific global events like September 11, 2001, etc.The correct answer is: Flashbulb memories

37

In a behavioural technique, actual exposure to feared stimulus takes place for a substantial amount of time, so the accompanying anxiety response fades away. This is called Select one:Aversive conditioningCovert reinforcementCovert sensitisationFlooding (in vivo)Implosion (in vitro)

Implosion is 'in vitro', - imaginary exposure in behavioural therapy.The correct answer is: Flooding (in vivo)

38

In a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, the bell is ringed before the food is presented. But the bell continued till salivation appeared. This is calledSelect one:Backward conditioningPseudoconditioningForward conditioningTrace conditioningSimultaneous conditioning

In forward conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus, and the combined stimuli persist until the unconditioned response is elicited during the pairing. The correct answer is: Forward conditioning

39

The brain region thought to be responsible for majority of working memory functions isSelect one:CerebellumDorsal thalamusFrontal lobeHippocampusTemporal lobe

Several event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found persistent frontal-lobe activity during retention intervals of delayed response tasks (a WM task). The parietal lobe is also important for this function.The correct answer is: Frontal lobe

40

A Lotto player thinks that more he loses, the more chances that he wins later. So he keeps playing the Lotto. This is best described asSelect one:Social loafingBase rate fallacyEntrapmentGambler's fallacyAvailability heuristics

Gambler's fallacy: an outcome is due as it has not happened for some time. So a gambler thinks that more he loses, the more chances that he wins later.The correct answer is: Gambler's fallacy

41

Raven's progressive matrices test is used to assessSelect one:Premorbid intelligenceFrontal lobe functionsGeneral intellectual abilityVisuospatial abilityAttentional bias

Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) are multiple-choice intelligence tests of abstract reasoning that provide culturally unbiased IQ estimates. Rey Osterrieth test comprises of copying a complex figure initially and then reproducing it from immediate and delayed recall that tests both visual memory and constructional abilityThe correct answer is: General intellectual ability

42

Which of the following can test abstract reasoning?Select one:Digit symbol substitution testClock drawing testTrail making testn-back testGoldstein's card sorting test

The Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Sorting Test was initially designed to test abstract reasoning (concept formation rather than the simple identification of abstract rules). Wisconsin card sorting test is a descendant of Goldstein task nd it tests concept identification rather than formationThe correct answer is: Goldstein's card sorting test

43

Which of the following behavioural treatment is useful in trichotillomania?Select one:Massed negative practiceExposure and response preventionHabit reversalBiofeedbackImaginal flooding

Habit reversal training (HRT) is a behavioral treatment package useful in tics and other OCD spectrum disorders such as trichotillomania, nail biting, thumb sucking, and skin picking, etc.The correct answer is: Habit reversal

44

A medical student becomes more comfortable in the anatomy laboratory after several weeks of exposure to it. Which of the following explains this process?Select one:Positive reinforcementHabituationNegative reinforcementModelingClassical conditioning

The decline in responsiveness or reaction to the repeated presentation of a stimulus is known as habituation.The correct answer is: Habituation

45

Which of the following psychological theories is not concerned with the faculties of memory and forgetting?Select one:Trace decay theoryHierarchy theoryInterference theoryRepressionState dependent learning

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is a theory of motivation/drives and not a theory of memory.The correct answer is: Hierarchy theory

46

Which of the following is a feature of Type A personality?Select one:High competitivenessBeing relaxedBeing patientEvading stressEasy-going without time pressure

Friedman and Rosenman introduced Type A / Type B personality classification. Type A persons show impatience, excessive time consciousness, insecurity, high competitiveness, hostility and aggression and are incapable of relaxation. They may be high achievers and workaholics. Type B persons are relaxed and easy-going; creative, often self-analyze and evade stress but cope poorly when under stress.The correct answer is: High competitiveness

47

Mr. Z was admitted to a neuropsychiatric unit with a diagnosis of an amnesic syndrome. He was referred to psychology for psychometric testing. Which of the following would be unimpaired in formal testing?Select one:Episodic memory of recent pastAnterograde memoryNew learningImmediate memoryDelayed recall

Various disorders can give rise to amnesic syndromes (E.g. hypoxia, herpes encephalitis) and the features would include 1. Unimpaired immediate memory. 2. The presence of anterograde amnesia- inability to acquire new information (impaired delayed recall) 3. The presence of retrograde amnesia of variable extent and severity 4. Unimpaired global intellectual abilities 5. Unimpaired implicit memoryThe correct answer is: Immediate memory

48

When carried out in imagination, Immediate exposure to elements at the top of the hierarchy without any gradation of anxiety-inducing stimuli is termed as;Select one:ImplosionCovert sensitisationAvoidanceFloodingDiscriminative stimulus

Immediate exposure to elements at the top of the hierarchy without any gradation of anxiety-inducing stimuli is called as 'flooding' when carried out in vivo and called as 'implosion therapy' when done through imagination.The correct answer is: Implosion

49

Which one among the following statements is true about classical conditioning?Select one:Classical conditioning occurs when a new stimulus is repeatedly paired with a conditioned stimulus.Classical conditioning was first demonstrated by skinnerClassical conditioning takes place irrespective of the nature of the unconditioned stimulusClassical conditioning is a slow process depending on repeated presentations of the stimulusIn classical conditioning, the responses are often autonomic

In classical conditioning, the responses are often autonomic. E.g Salivation response. Classical conditioning occurs when a new stimulus is repeatedly paired with a unconditioned stimulus (UCS) which is known to elicit a given unconditioned response (UCR). This results in the new stimulus becoming able to elicit the same response. Ivan Pavlov first demonstrated this.The correct answer is: In classical conditioning, the responses are often autonomic

50

Which one among the following statements regarding needs and motivation is incorrect?Select one:according to Yerkes-Dodson curve, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between arousal (motivation) and performance levelAccording to Canon's homeostatic theory, changes in homeostatic system triggers processes aimed at restoration of systemAccording to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Needs at the previous level need to be satisfied before one can progress to the next levelAccording to Drive reduction theory, motivation of behaviour is to decrease the arousal associated with basic drivesIn Maslow's hierarchy of needs, cognitive needs precede esteem needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Maslow is best known for his hierarchy of needs in which he proposed that basic needs such as the physiological needs of hunger and thirst must be satisfied before the higher needs (such as esteem and self actualisation) can be achieved. Physiological needs, safety needs, Love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, Cognitive needs, Aesthetic needs and self-actualisation needs. Cannon postulated the homeostatic drive theory. According to this theory, changes in homeostatic system triggers processes aimed at restoration of system. Basic needs (biological needs), being self-regulating, function homeostatically. According to Yerkes-Dodson curve, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between arousal (motivation) and performance level. As the level of emotional arousal increases, so does performance efficiency, to an optimum level. As the emotional arousal increases above this point, performance starts to deteriorate The drive reduction theory by Hull: According to this theory, motivation of behaviour is to decrease the arousal associated with basic drives e.g. thirst but doesn't explain curiosity motives and the theory is generally rejected.The correct answer is: In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, cognitive needs precede esteem needs

51

Digit span test is administered to a patient with suspected cognitive impairment. Normal reverse digit span in a working age adult isSelect one:10 ± 2 digits7 ± 1 digits7 ± 2 digits5 ± 2 digits4 ± 3 digits

Normal forward span is 7 ± 2 digits; while the normal reverse span is 5 ± 2 digits.The correct answer is: 5 ± 2 digits

52

Skinner's operant conditioning is based on which of the following principles?Select one:An association is learnt without overt behavioural expressionA response gets paired with a consequenceA response gets paired with its probabilityA response gets paired with an inernal stimulusA stimulus gets paired with a response

Skinner believed that the best way to understand behaviour is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning.The correct answer is: A response gets paired with a consequence

53

Situation specific amnesia may arise in all of the following situations exceptSelect one:Post traumatic stress disorderAdjustment disorderBeing the victim of an offenceBeing the victim of childhood sexual abuseCommitting an offence

Situation specific amnesia has not been reported in patients with adjustment disorder. Offenders as well as victims of crimes commonly claim amnesia regarding the offence. Cross sectional studies have found that in 25-45% of homicides, 8% of other violent crimes and a small percentage of non-violent crimes, offenders claim for the offence (Kopelman 2002a). Amnesia for an offence can also occur in alcohol intoxication, substance misuse and acute psychosis but purely psychological amnesia occurs most commonly in crimes of passion. In people with PTSD Anterograde memory dysfunction has been demonstrated in people with PTSD and there are claims that they have a loss of hippocampal volume on MRI (Bremmer 1999), which has been attributed to effects of glucocorticoids (Markowitsch 1996). (Excerpt from Psychogenic amnesia, http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/15/2/152 (accessed April 13, 2015)).The correct answer is: Adjustment disorder

54

All of the following are deficiency needs exceptSelect one:Aesthetic needsSafety needsPhysiological needsLove and belonging needsEsteem needs

Maslow identified deficiency needs called D motives and growth needs (being) needs called B motives. He proposed a hierarchy of human needs with phylogenic and ontogenic evolution through the hierarchy. The needs become less biological as one ascends through the hierarchy. He described six sets, often represented by a pyramid, with physiological needs at the bottom and self actualization needs at the apex. Physiological needs, Safety needs, Love and belonging needs and Esteem needs are referred to as deficiency needs. The higher needs come into focus only when the lower needs are satisfied, at least to some extent.The correct answer is: Aesthetic needs

55

Wechsler Adult intelligence scales (WAIS-R) are for peopleSelect one:Aged 15 and over7 to 16 year oldsAged 18 and over3 to 7 year oldsAged 16 and over

Wechsler Adult intelligence scales-R is for those aged 16 and over. Wechsler Adult intelligence scales for children is for those aged 7 to 16 years. Wechsler preschool and primary intelligence is for 3 to 7.5 year old children.The correct answer is: Aged 16 and over

56

In studies on arousal levels related to different emotions, which emotion produces the maximum rise in temperature compared to all other emotions;Select one:SadnessDisgustAngerLoveFear

Anger- maximum rise in temperature. Fear and Disgust- drop in temperature. Studies on emotions have shown that the heart rate increase produced by sadness is usually greater than that produced by happiness.The correct answer is: Anger

57

In the alcoholic blackouts, the following type of memory loss is seen:Select one:Anterograde amnesia due to failure to consolidationRetrograde amnesiaDissociative amnesiaAnterograde amnesia due to failure to recallBoth retrograde and anterograde amnesia

A disruption in normal activity of hippocampus under the influence of alcohol can result in temporary failure of memory consolidation leading to anterograde amnesia for circumscribed periods. This is called as alcoholic blackout.The correct answer is: Anterograde amnesia due to failure to consolidation

58

Which of the following is true regarding processes that govern formation of various types of memory?Select one:Attention allows decoding long term memory storeLack of attention leads to forgettingAttention allows short-term memory to enter long-term memory storeAttention allows sensory memory to enter short term memory storeLack of attention leads to delay in recall

Attention is a key process that enables sensory memory traces to enter into short term memory.The correct answer is: Attention allows sensory memory to enter short term memory store

59

Which conditioning is involved in the aetiology of both agoraphobia and of obsessional rituals?Select one:Classical conditioningForced conditioningBackward conditioningOperant conditioningAvoidance conditioning

The term aversive conditioning refers to situations in which behavior is motivated by the threat of an unpleasant stimulus. There are two main categories of behavior under aversive control: avoidance behavior and escape behavior. Escape conditioning occurs when the animal learns to perform an operant to terminate an ongoing, aversive stimulus. It is a "get me out of here" or "shut this off" reaction, aimed at escape from pain. The behavior that produces escape is negatively reinforced (reinforced by the elimination of the unpleasant stimulus). For example, the jump of a rat from electrified platform onto a bowl of water is an escape behavior. Escape conditioning is converted into avoidance conditioning by giving a signal before the aversive stimulus starts. If the animal receives a cue or signal that an aversive stimulus is coming, then after one or two occurrences of the punishing stimulus the cue will trigger an avoidance behavior. This kind of learning occurs quickly and is very durable. For example, if you sounded a tone before you electrified the platform, after one or two trials the rat would respond to the tone by jumping into the water. It would not wait for the shock. Avoidance behaviors are very persistent even when there is no longer anything to avoid. The reason is that as a result of an avoidance reaction, one never experiences the aversive stimulus. But this serves as a negative reinforcement, providing a sense of relief. Because of this, avoidance behavior is self-reinforcing. (Excerpt from Avoidance and Escape Learning, Chapter 5: Conditioning, http://www.intropsych.com/ch05_conditioning/avoidance_and_escape_learning.html (accessed April 13, 2015))The correct answer is: Avoidance conditioning

60

A 24 year old woman develops significant fear of driving after having a relatively trivial road traffic accident. She avoids using cars even as a passenger. She has no symptoms of PTSD. Which of the following therapies is best suited for her needs?Select one:Brief focal dynamic psychotherapyCognitive analytic therapyInterpersonal therapyBehaviour therapyPsychoanalytic therapy

This is simple phobia for driving and not PTSD. So behaviour therapy is the correct option.The correct answer is: Behaviour therapy

61

In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments on dogs, which of the following served as the conditioned stimulus?Select one:FoodSalivaBellHungerDog

Pavlov's dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking bell nuise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder. (Excerpt from Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) | Learning Theories, http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html).The correct answer is: Bell

62

Tip of the tongue state is a well investigated example ofSelect one:Context dependent memoryBlockingEncoding failureFailure of prospective memoryState dependent memory

Sometimes people may have the experience that we know the answer we are seeking but cannot quite find it and this feeling is known as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, also abbreviated as TOT phenomenon. This is a well investigated example of Blocking, which is one of the 'retrieval failure' theories of forgetting. Blocking is said to occur when the subjects are unable to access information that they know exists in their memory despite great efforts at recalling even in the presence of retrieval cues. TOT states may last for few seconds or for a few days.The correct answer is: Blocking

63

People can only attend to one physical channel of information at a time'-Which theory of attention states this?Select one:Broadbent's filter theory of attentionCocktail party phenomenonDichotic listening experimentsAttenuator model of selective attentionShiffrin and Schneider's divided attention theory

Dichotic listening experiments show that alternative information is simultaneously processed and can be attended to if required. Here one kind of information is selected for attention and it is called as selective or focused attention. Broadbent conducted dichotic listening experiments and he suggested that "our mind can be conceived as a radio receiving many channels at once". He supposed that in brain there exists a type of audio filter in our brain that selects which channel we should pay attention to from the many kinds of sounds perceived. Broadbent proposed that the filter lies between the sensory buffer and short-term store (what is now called working memory) that prevents overloading memory. This is called Broadbent's filter theory.The correct answer is: Broadbent's filter theory of attention

64

A clinical psychologist performed digit span test and immediately asked the patient to count a three digit number backwards. What is this procedure called as?Select one:Brown Paterson TaskPrimacy effectRecency effectBaddeley and Hitch TaskCohen and Squire experiment

Under normal situations, the duration for which information is held in short term memory is usually 15 to 20 seconds. STM is also very fragile and information is lost quickly. Brown Paterson demonstrated that by 15 seconds the original material is completely forgotten. Brown Paterson task involves introducing distraction (such as counting a three digit number backwards) immediately after the digit span test in order to prevent rehearsal.The correct answer is: Brown Paterson Task

65

Which of the following is not a component of the Big Five Theory of personality?Select one:CapacityAgreeablenessOpennessNeuroticismExtraversion

The Big Five are five broad factors (dimensions) of personality traits. They include 1. Extraversion which encompasses more specific traits as talkative, energetic, and assertiveness. 2. Agreeableness which includes sympathtic, kind and affectionate approach. 3. Conscientiousness that includes traits such as being organized, thorough, and planful. 4. Neuroticism which includes traits like being tense, moody and anxious. 5. Openness to Experience which includes traits like having wide interests, being imaginative and insightful.(In short, the Big Five includes five traits, each beginning with the alphabets of the word OCEAN)The correct answer is: Capacity

66

Biofeedback can mainly modify which of the following functions?Select one:Gastrointestinal functionCardiovascular functionMusculoskeletal functionRespiratory functionCentral nervous system function

Biofeedback involves the transmission to subjects of information about biological functions. It can modify cardiovascular function and is a useful method of reducing muscle tension. It is a technique for controlling physiological responses by receiving information about these responses as they occur. Monitoring devices track physiological responses such as heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension and provide the person with feedback in the form of light or tone whenever they change the response in the desired direction. With practice, a person can learn to control all sorts of bodily functions predominantly through relaxation (Excerpt retrieved from http://www.abahe.co.uk/biofeedback-definition.html).The correct answer is: Cardiovascular function

67

Which of the following is not a part of the Big Five personality traits?Select one:CarefulnessOpennessAgreeablenessNeuroticismConscientiousness

Big Five traits (McCrae and Costa 1992) include OCEAN - Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. This has provided a unified framework for trait research. NEO decreases with age; AC increases with age.The correct answer is: Carefulness

68

The principle of combining separate pieces of information into one meaningful combination is called Select one:EncodingPrimacy effectChunkingSensory storageRecency effect

Chunking is a method of increasing the capacity of short-term memory by combining units or information (usually numbers) into chunks. By doing so, impressive feats of memory can result. For example the numbers 1,5,2,3,5.2,5,8,5,3,7,8 would normally overload our short term memory but if they are arranged into chunks 152, 352, 585, 378, they become a lot more manageable. The capacity of STM according to Miller is 7+/- 2, as evident while testing digit span. By chunking, larger information could be sorted into 7+/- 2 items and effectively stored.The correct answer is: Chunking

69

In a scientific experiment, a neutral stimulus (a bell) is paired with a stimulus (food) that produces an autonomic response (salivation). Which of the following learning mechanisms has been employed?Select one:Systematic desensitizationShapingchainingOperant conditioningClassical conditioning

Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning. It was first described by Ivan Pavlov working on the conditioned reflex. He was able to take an autonomic reflex (e.g., salivation to food) that was thought to be unconditioned and demonstrated that it could be conditioned to respond to a new stimulus (e.g., a bell) if the new stimulus was presented along with or prior to the unconditioned stimulus (food). After a number of such presentations, the new stimulus (bell) would elicit the autonomic unconditioned response.The correct answer is: Classical conditioning

70

The strategies to improve encoding includes all exceptSelect one:Using imageriesMnemonicsUsing primacy-Recency effectsCueingChunking

Strategies to improve encoding include - order and sorting info, chunking, mnemonics, using imageries, adding importance and salience to the info and using primacy-Recency effects. Retrieval can be helped by cueing and reinstatement of learning context. The more similar the retrieval situation is to the encoding situation, the better retrieval. This is called encoding specificity principle.The correct answer is: Cueing

71

The most important and common bedside test that is used in demonstrating age-associated memory impairment would be;Select one:Delayed recallOrientation to time and placeImmediate recallNaming objectsAttention and calculation

40% of individuals aged 65 and over show AAMI. Cognitive testing has demonstrated that memory for non-verbal material seems to be more affected by aging than memory for verbal material, and delayed recall is more affected than immediate recall. Here the subject is given a list of 20 words and then ask him or her to recall as many as possible in 20 minutes. Finally, the score is compared with standardised scores for the given age.The correct answer is: Delayed recall

72

Learned helplessness has been invoked to explain the aetiology of;Select one:Obsessive compulsive disordersPsychosomatic disordersAnxiety disordersPsychotic disordersDepressive disorders

Learned helplessness: This is the tendency of an organism to give up trying to avoid or escape from an unpleasant stimulus because in the past all their attempts at so doing had been frustrated. Dogs were given electric shocks and prevented from escaping but after repeated shocks the dogs would no longer try to escape, even when a fairly obvious means of escape was made available and this was invoked to explain the etiology of depression.The correct answer is: Depressive disorders

73

A 45-year-old man was admitted to the acquired brain injury unit with severe memory impairment. Which of the common clinical tests can be used to test his immediate memory?Select one:Recall of last mealRecall of distant personal eventsRecall of items after 5 minutesRecall of recent topics in newsDigit span

The terms used in psychology and psychiatry are somewhat different which could lead to some confusion. The terms used in psychology are short term memory (immediate memory in psychiatry) and long-term memory (recent memory and remote memory in psychiatry). Digit span tests immediate memory (STM). Recollection of a name and an address after 5 minutes is seen as a test of recent memory (which, in fact, is a part of LTM and should not be considered as a test of STM)The correct answer is: Digit span

74

Which is a form of negative reinforcement used in the treatment of alcohol dependence?Select one:Apomorphine treatmentAversion therapy using electric shockCovert sensitizationDisulfiramAlcoholics anonymous

The use of disulfiram - a deterrent agent (also called alcohol-sensitizing drug) - is a form of behavioural modification with negative reinforcement used in the treatment of alcohol dependence.The correct answer is: Disulfiram

75

All of the following are true with respect to coping process when faced with a life stressor exceptSelect one:In emotion-focused coping the individual alters his emotional self-appraisal to the stressful situationDuring primary appraisal the individual evaluates his resources to copeIn problem-focused coping the individual attempts to change the stressful situationIndividuals employ a variety of different strategies to copeThere is no universally best strategy for coping

Primary appraisal - the individual evaluates the stressor. Secondary appraisal - the individual evaluates his resources and options available to manage the stressful situation.The correct answer is: During primary appraisal the individual evaluates his resources to cope

76

Which of the following theorists proposed six basic emotions?Select one:EkmanLorenzCannon and BardJames and LangeAinsworth

According to Paul Ekman, the six basic emotions are sadness, happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. These emotions combine in different ways to form other emotions, including compassion, boredom, embarrassment, rage, hunger, and more.The correct answer is: Ekman

77

Information is held in the long term memory by the process ofSelect one:Rote rehearsalElaborative rehearsalMaintenance rehearsalRecency effectDisplacement of older memories

Rehearsal is supposed to be the transient control process that can aid maintenance of STM and transfer to LTM. Other control processes include encoding, retrieval strategies and decision to remember. Rehearsal may be maintenance/rote rehearsal or elaborative rehearsal where encoding is semantically elaborated or changed. Maintenance rehearsal is simple and refers to the repetition of items in one's mind and occasionally by verbal repetition (e.g., trying to remember a telephone number). Elaborative rehearsal involves more extensive understanding of the meaning of the material, a process involving long-term memory. It is proposed that rehearsal can take place at three levels of processing. Shallow processing where surface features are only rehearsed, phonemic processing where sound features are rehearsed or semantic processing where deeper encoding and meaning related associations are made. A higher level of processing depends on time available and nature of the material processed.The correct answer is: Elaborative rehearsal

78

Which of the following refers to the formation of initial memory traces?Select one:RetentionForgettingRetrievalStorageEncoding

In all operations involving memory, three different processes are thought to occur. Encoding; It leads to the formation of initial memory traces and receives information from the outside. The encoding is acoustic in short term memory and semantic in long term memory. Storage: Retention of information and maintenance. Retrieval; Accessing and recovering information from memory stores.The correct answer is: Encoding

79

Amnesic syndrome is characterised by a marked impairment inSelect one:Procedural memoryWorking memoryEpisodic memorySemantic memoryImplicit memory

The term amnesia refers to episodic memory loss.The correct answer is: Episodic memory

80

Which one of Maslow's hierarchy of needs represents the need to develop a sense of personal worth and competence and the need for recognition by others?Select one:Aesthetic and cognitive needsPhysiological needsSelf actualisation needsEsteem needsMotivation needs

Esteem needs- the need to develop a sense of personal worth and competence and the need for recognition by others. Aesthetic and cognitive needs- These are growth needs involving knowledge, understanding, beauty and symmetry. The need for self-actualisations is the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.. According to Maslow, the following characters are seen in self-actualizing people. They are Spontaneous in their ideas and actions, Creative. Interested in solving problems, Appreciate life, Have a system of internalized independent morality and can view all things in an objective manner.The correct answer is: Esteem needs

81

A reinforced operant response weakens when the reinforcement is ceased. This is called Select one:Stimulus decouplingStimulus sensitisationExtinctionStimulus discriminationStimulus incubation

Extinction is typically studied within the Pavlovian fear conditioning framework in which extinction refers to the reduction in a conditioned response (CR; e.g., fear response/freezing) when a conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., neutral stimulus/light or tone) is repeatedly presented in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., foot shock/loud noise) with which it has been previously paired.The correct answer is: Extinction

82

Which one of the following is a way of measuring personality along the dimensions of extroversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability?Select one:Rorschach ink blot testMinnesota multiphasic personality inventoryDraw a person testThematic apperception testEysenck Personality Inventory

EPI is a way of measuring personality along the dimensions of extroversion-introversion and neuroticism stability. The inventory also includes a lie scale.The correct answer is: Eysenck Personality Inventory

83

Mr. X was seen in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. He complains of absent-mindedness and is failing to take medications and keep appointments. This is due toSelect one:Failure of conditioningFailure of encodingFailure of context dependent memoryFailure of prospective memoryFailure of State dependent memory

Failure of prospective memory is a common cause of absent mindedness. Prospective memory is the ability to carry out particular actions or perform planned actions and appears to involve the prefrontal lobes of the brain. This is one of the findings/theories of retrieval failure.The correct answer is: Failure of prospective memory

84

Which one among the following is not one of the Gestalt principles of perception?Select one:SimilarityContinuityClosureFamiliarityProximity

The Gestalt principles of perception would include proximity, closure, similarity, continuity and symmetry. According to Gestalt principles, we tend to perceive whole objects rather than parts. The perceptual system in our brains employs these principles to enable us perceive unified forms rather than simple collections of unconnected images.The correct answer is: Familiarity

85

According to Ebbinghaus curve, there is a sharp drop in forgetting overSelect one:First eighteen hoursFirst seven daysFirst twenty four hoursFirst one monthFirst nine hours

Hermann Ebbinghaus plotted the forgetting curve by plotting proportion of words retained in memory against time. The curve shows a sharp drop over the first nine hours and particularly during the first hour. After nine hours, the rate of forgetting slows and declines little thereafter, even after the lapse of 31 days. The main findings from his and other studies are; Forgetting is maximum in the first few hours and the rate of forgetting gets less with time. Forgetting is never complete and some information is retained over longer periods of time, even for life. Recalling the material during the test period increases the probability of remembering items or events. Continuous motor skills such as cycling and swimming etc show no forgetting at all. But discrete motors kills such as typing are lost more quickly.The correct answer is: First nine hours

86

Mr. X mentioned that he has vivid memories of where he was, what he was doing and was even able to remember other fine details, when he heard the news of suicide bombing of the twin towers in 2001. These memories have been termed asSelect one:Selective memoryFlashbulb memoriesAutobiographical memoryProcedural memorySemantic memory

Episodic memory is autobiographical, self-focussed spatio-temporal memory. Flashbulb memory is a special episodic memory where people remember clearly where and what they were doing at times of specific global events like September 11, 2001, etc.The correct answer is: Flashbulb memories

87

In a behavioural technique, actual exposure to feared stimulus takes place for a substantial amount of time, so the accompanying anxiety response fades away. This is called Select one:Aversive conditioningCovert reinforcementCovert sensitisationFlooding (in vivo)Implosion (in vitro)

Implosion is 'in vitro', - imaginary exposure in behavioural therapy.The correct answer is: Flooding (in vivo)

88

In a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, the bell is ringed before the food is presented. But the bell continued till salivation appeared. This is calledSelect one:Backward conditioningPseudoconditioningForward conditioningTrace conditioningSimultaneous conditioning

In forward conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus, and the combined stimuli persist until the unconditioned response is elicited during the pairing. The correct answer is: Forward conditioning

89

The brain region thought to be responsible for majority of working memory functions isSelect one:CerebellumDorsal thalamusFrontal lobeHippocampusTemporal lobe

Several event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have found persistent frontal-lobe activity during retention intervals of delayed response tasks (a WM task). The parietal lobe is also important for this function.The correct answer is: Frontal lobe

90

A Lotto player thinks that more he loses, the more chances that he wins later. So he keeps playing the Lotto. This is best described asSelect one:Social loafingBase rate fallacyEntrapmentGambler's fallacyAvailability heuristics

Gambler's fallacy: an outcome is due as it has not happened for some time. So a gambler thinks that more he loses, the more chances that he wins later.The correct answer is: Gambler's fallacy

91

Raven's progressive matrices test is used to assessSelect one:Premorbid intelligenceFrontal lobe functionsGeneral intellectual abilityVisuospatial abilityAttentional bias

Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) are multiple-choice intelligence tests of abstract reasoning that provide culturally unbiased IQ estimates. Rey Osterrieth test comprises of copying a complex figure initially and then reproducing it from immediate and delayed recall that tests both visual memory and constructional abilityThe correct answer is: General intellectual ability

92

Which of the following can test abstract reasoning?Select one:Digit symbol substitution testClock drawing testTrail making testn-back testGoldstein's card sorting test

The Goldstein-Scheerer Color Form Sorting Test was initially designed to test abstract reasoning (concept formation rather than the simple identification of abstract rules). Wisconsin card sorting test is a descendant of Goldstein task nd it tests concept identification rather than formationThe correct answer is: Goldstein's card sorting test

93

Which of the following behavioural treatment is useful in trichotillomania?Select one:Massed negative practiceExposure and response preventionHabit reversalBiofeedbackImaginal flooding

Habit reversal training (HRT) is a behavioral treatment package useful in tics and other OCD spectrum disorders such as trichotillomania, nail biting, thumb sucking, and skin picking, etc.The correct answer is: Habit reversal

94

A medical student becomes more comfortable in the anatomy laboratory after several weeks of exposure to it. Which of the following explains this process?Select one:Positive reinforcementHabituationNegative reinforcementModelingClassical conditioning

The decline in responsiveness or reaction to the repeated presentation of a stimulus is known as habituation.The correct answer is: Habituation

95

Which of the following psychological theories is not concerned with the faculties of memory and forgetting?Select one:Trace decay theoryHierarchy theoryInterference theoryRepressionState dependent learning

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory is a theory of motivation/drives and not a theory of memory.The correct answer is: Hierarchy theory

96

Which of the following is a feature of Type A personality?Select one:High competitivenessBeing relaxedBeing patientEvading stressEasy-going without time pressure

Friedman and Rosenman introduced Type A / Type B personality classification. Type A persons show impatience, excessive time consciousness, insecurity, high competitiveness, hostility and aggression and are incapable of relaxation. They may be high achievers and workaholics. Type B persons are relaxed and easy-going; creative, often self-analyze and evade stress but cope poorly when under stress.The correct answer is: High competitiveness

97

Mr. Z was admitted to a neuropsychiatric unit with a diagnosis of an amnesic syndrome. He was referred to psychology for psychometric testing. Which of the following would be unimpaired in formal testing?Select one:Episodic memory of recent pastAnterograde memoryNew learningImmediate memoryDelayed recall

Various disorders can give rise to amnesic syndromes (E.g. hypoxia, herpes encephalitis) and the features would include 1. Unimpaired immediate memory. 2. The presence of anterograde amnesia- inability to acquire new information (impaired delayed recall) 3. The presence of retrograde amnesia of variable extent and severity 4. Unimpaired global intellectual abilities 5. Unimpaired implicit memoryThe correct answer is: Immediate memory

98

When carried out in imagination, Immediate exposure to elements at the top of the hierarchy without any gradation of anxiety-inducing stimuli is termed as;Select one:ImplosionCovert sensitisationAvoidanceFloodingDiscriminative stimulus

Immediate exposure to elements at the top of the hierarchy without any gradation of anxiety-inducing stimuli is called as 'flooding' when carried out in vivo and called as 'implosion therapy' when done through imagination.The correct answer is: Implosion

99

Which one among the following statements is true about classical conditioning?Select one:Classical conditioning occurs when a new stimulus is repeatedly paired with a conditioned stimulus.Classical conditioning was first demonstrated by skinnerClassical conditioning takes place irrespective of the nature of the unconditioned stimulusClassical conditioning is a slow process depending on repeated presentations of the stimulusIn classical conditioning, the responses are often autonomic

In classical conditioning, the responses are often autonomic. E.g Salivation response. Classical conditioning occurs when a new stimulus is repeatedly paired with a unconditioned stimulus (UCS) which is known to elicit a given unconditioned response (UCR). This results in the new stimulus becoming able to elicit the same response. Ivan Pavlov first demonstrated this.The correct answer is: In classical conditioning, the responses are often autonomic

100

Which one among the following statements regarding needs and motivation is incorrect?Select one:according to Yerkes-Dodson curve, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between arousal (motivation) and performance levelAccording to Canon's homeostatic theory, changes in homeostatic system triggers processes aimed at restoration of systemAccording to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Needs at the previous level need to be satisfied before one can progress to the next levelAccording to Drive reduction theory, motivation of behaviour is to decrease the arousal associated with basic drivesIn Maslow's hierarchy of needs, cognitive needs precede esteem needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Maslow is best known for his hierarchy of needs in which he proposed that basic needs such as the physiological needs of hunger and thirst must be satisfied before the higher needs (such as esteem and self actualisation) can be achieved. Physiological needs, safety needs, Love and belongingness needs, esteem needs, Cognitive needs, Aesthetic needs and self-actualisation needs. Cannon postulated the homeostatic drive theory. According to this theory, changes in homeostatic system triggers processes aimed at restoration of system. Basic needs (biological needs), being self-regulating, function homeostatically. According to Yerkes-Dodson curve, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between arousal (motivation) and performance level. As the level of emotional arousal increases, so does performance efficiency, to an optimum level. As the emotional arousal increases above this point, performance starts to deteriorate The drive reduction theory by Hull: According to this theory, motivation of behaviour is to decrease the arousal associated with basic drives e.g. thirst but doesn't explain curiosity motives and the theory is generally rejected.The correct answer is: In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, cognitive needs precede esteem needs