Give the name of three main structural components of the cytoskeleton.
- Intermediate filament
What is the cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton is a series of intercellular proteins that provides mechanical strength to cells, aids transport within cells and enable cell movement.
Describe what microtubules are and their role in the cell.
Microtubules are cylinder-shaped fibres made of protein. They act like support beams as well as playing a key role in movement using ATP to drive these movemevents (eg. spindle formation, separation of chromosomes, vesicles, sweeping movements of flagella and cilia.)
Describe what microfilaments are and their role in the cell.
Microfilaments is another component of the cytoskeleton that is concentrated beneath the membrane, giving support. They also give support to cytoplasmic streaming and cytokinesis.
Describe what intermediate filaments are and their role in the cell.
Intermediate filaments is another component of the cytoskeleton that is stronger than the microfilament. They resist tension, maintain the cell shape and anchor cells together (eg. keratin.)
Describe the structure of the cilia and undulipodia (flagella.)
Both are structurally the same:
- Each hair-like extension contains 9 microtubules arranged in a circle and 2 in the central bundle.
- Undulipodia are longer than cilia.
Outline the role of the cilia in the ciliated epithelium and undulipodia on a sperm cell.
- The cilia creates sweeping movements to waft substances such as mucus across the cell surface.
- Undulipodia forms the tail of a sperm cell, creating whip-like movements, enabling it to move.
In terms of the vacuole, how does a plant cell maintains its cell shape?
The large vacuole is filled with water and solutes that pushes the cytoplasm against the cell wall, making it turgid. This helps support the plant.
Describe the structure of the cell wall of a plant cell.
- The cell wall is on the outside of the cell plasma membrane.
- It is made of cellulose.
- It forms a sieve-like network of strands, making it strong to support the cell and the plant overall.
Which contain the following: animal cell of plant cell?
- Cell wall
- Golgi Apparatus
- Nuclear envelope