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Flashcards in Lower limb Deck (93)
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1
Q

List the structures of the femur

A
  • Head of femur
  • Neck of femur
  • Inferior acetabular notch = break at edge of socket
  • Transverse acetabular ligament = ligament across inferior acetabular notch
  • Greater trochanter
  • Lesser trochanter
  • Lateral and medial condyle
  • Patellar surface
2
Q

Label the structures of the femur

A
3
Q

List the muscles of the anterior thigh

A
  1. Sartorius
  2. Quadriceps
  • Rectus femoris
  • Vatus lateralis
  • Vatus intermedius
  • Vastus medius
  1. Poas
  2. Iliacus
  3. Tensor fascia lata
4
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of the sartorius muscle

A
  • Site: Anterior thigh
  • Attachments: ASIS - medial aspect of tibia
  • Movement: hip flexion and lateral rotation, knee extension
  • Nerve supply: femoral
5
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of the psoas and iliacus muscle

A

Psoas

  • Site: anterior hip
  • Attachment: lumbrar spine - lesser trochanter
  • Movement: hip flexion, trunk flexion
  • Nerve supply: branch of lumbar plexus

Iliacus

  • Site: anterior hip
  • Attachment: Iliac fossa - lessser trochanter
  • Movement: Hip flexion
  • Nerve supply: femoral
6
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of the quadriceps muscles

A

Rectus femoris

  • Site: anterior thigh
  • Attatchment: attaches to the ASIS - tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon
  • Movement: Knee extension, hip flexion
  • Nerve supply: femoral nerve

Vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis

  • Site: Vastus lateralis - antero-lateral thigh, vastus intermedius - anteior thigh. vastus medialis - antero-medial thigh
  • Attatchment: attach to femur - tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon
  • Movemement: knee extension
  • Nerve supply: femoral nerve
7
Q

Describe the location, action and nerve supply of the tensor fascia lata

A

Location: Fascia lata lies within fascia of antero-lateral hip

Role: By tensing the fascia lata it provides lateral support to the knee as the knee comes into extension

Nerve supply: femoral nerve

8
Q

Describe the borders ( + floor and roof) and contents of the femoral triangle

A

Muscles

Borders

  • Lateral border - Sartorius
  • Medial border - Adductor longus
  • Superior border - Inguinal ligament
  • Floor - Pectineus, distal tendon of iliacus and psoas
  • Roof - skin

Innervation - Femoral

  • Nerve
  • Artery
  • Vein
  • Y-fronts (i.e., the midline)
9
Q

Label the structures of the femoral triangle

A
10
Q

Label the structure of the anterior thigh and leg. Also mention any muscles that are deep and not shown

A

Vastus intermedialis is deep to rectus femoris

11
Q

List the muscles of the medial thigh and their main role

A

Gracialis

Adductor muscles

  • Adductor longus
  • Adductor Brevis
  • Adductior magnus

Pectineus

Role: Adduction of lower limbs

12
Q

Which muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh has a role in adduction AND extension of the hip joint?

A

Adductor magnus

13
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of Gracillis

A
  • Site - medial thigh
  • Attatchment - heads from pelvis, along medial side and attaches to medial aspect of tibia. Shares attachment with sartorius and semitendinosus
  • Action - Hip adduction, knee flexion
  • Nerve supply - Obturator nerve
14
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of the adductor muscles

A

Adductor longus (most superficial and longest muscle)

Adductor brevis - deep and proximal to adductor longus

Adductor magnus - proximal to adductor brevis and largest, most powerful muscle of the hip

Attachment: body of pubis, inferior to pubic crest and lateral to the pubic symphysis

Movement: Hip adduction

Innervation: obturator nerve

15
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of pectineus

A
  • Site: Antero-medial thigh
  • Attachment: Body of pubis - medial aspect of tibia
  • Movement: hip adduction
  • Nerve supple: femoral nerve
16
Q

a) What muscles do the posterior portion of the adductor muscles share an attachment with? Where is this attachment?
b) A portion of the adductor magnus of the ‘hamsting portion’ will recieve the same nerve supply. What is the nerve supply?

A

a) Posterior portion of the adductor muscles shares an attachment with the 3 hamstring muscles. The attachment is the ischial tuberosity
b) Sciatic nerve

17
Q

Label the structures of the medial thigh

A
18
Q

Label the structures of the medial thigh

A
19
Q

List the muscles in the posterior thigh and describe their main action and their nerve supply

A
  • Biceps femoris
  • Semimembranosus
  • Semintendinosus

Main adduction: hip extension and knee flexion

Nevre supply: Sciatic nerve

20
Q

Label the muscles of the posterior thigh

A
21
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of the 3 hamsting muscles

A

Semimembranosus

  • Site - posterior thigh
  • Attachment - Ischial tuberosity - medial aspect of tibia (pes anserine insertion)
  • Action - Hip extension, knee flexion, medially rotates leg of unplanted limb
  • Nerve supply - Tibial portion of sciatic nerve

Semitendinosus

  • Site - posterior thighAttachment - ischial tuberosity- postero-medial aspect of tibia. Reflection gives oblique popliteal ligament
  • Action - Hip extension, knee flexion, medially rotates leg of unplanted limb
  • Nerve supply - Tibial portion of sciatic nerve

Biceps femoris - short head and long head (deep to long head)

  • Site -posterior thigh
  • Attachment - ischial tuberosity (long head) and linea aspera (short head) to head of fibula
  • Action - Hip extension, knee flexion, laterally rotates leg of unplanted limb
  • Nerve supply - Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (long head), Common peroneal (fibular) portion of sciatic nerve (short head)
22
Q

List the muscles of the gluteal region

A
  • Gluteal maximus
  • Gluteal medius
  • Gluteal minimus
  • Piriformis
  • Obturator internus
  • Superior and inferior gemelli
  • Obturator externus
  • Quadratus femoris
23
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerves supply of the gluteal muscles

A

Gluteal maximus

  • Site - Posterior hip
  • Attachment: Ilium, sacrum, coccyx and sacrotuberous ligament - posterior femur and lateral aspect of tibia via iliotibial tract
  • Function: Hip extension
  • Innervation: Inferior gluteal nerve

Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

  • Site: postero-lateral hip
  • Attachment: Ilium - greater trochanter
  • Action: Hip abduction and medial/internal rotation of hip
  • Innervation: Superior gluteal nerve
24
Q

Describe the site, attachments, nerve supply and action of the following muscles:

a) Piriformis
b) Superior and inferior gemelli

A

a) Piriformis

  • Site - posterior hip
  • Attachments - sacrum - greater trochanter
  • Action - lateral hip rotation
  • Nerve supply - sacral plexus

b) Superior and inferior gemelli

  • Site - posterior hip
  • Attachments - ischial spine (inferior), ischial tuberosity (superior) - greater trochanter
  • Action - lateral hip rotation
  • Nerve supply- nerve to obturator internus (superior) and nerve to quadratus femoris (inferior)
25
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of obturator internus and obturator externus

A

Obturator internus

  • Site -posterior hip
  • Attatchment - Internal aspect of obturator membrane - greater trochanter
  • Function - lateral/external hip rotation
  • Innervation - Nerve to obturator internus

Obturator externus - lateral short rotator muscles

  • Sire - posterior hip
  • Attachment - External aspect ofobturator membrane - greater trochanter
  • Function - Lateral hip rotation
  • Innevation: Obturator nerve
26
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of quadratus femoris

A
  • Site: posterior hip
  • Attatchment: Ischial tuberosity - greater trochanter
  • Action: External/lateral rotation of hip joint
  • Nerve supply: Quadratus femoris
27
Q

Label the muscles of the gluteal region

A
28
Q

List the muscles of the anterior leg, their general movement and their innervation

A

Muscles

  • Tibialis anterior
  • Extensor digitorum longus
  • Extensor hallucis longus
  • Peroneus (fibularis) longus

Movemement: Dorsal flex ankle joint

Innervation: Deep peroneal/fibular nerve

29
Q

Describe the site, attachment, action and nerve supply of

a) Tibialis anterior
b) Extensor digitorum longus
c) Extensor hallucis longus

A

a) Tibialis anterior

  • Site: anterior leg
  • Attachment: upper lateral aspect tibia - 1st MTP/midfood
  • Action: Ankle dorsiflexion, ankle invesion. Supports medial longitudinal arch of foot
  • Nerve supply: Deep peroneal (fibular) nerve

b) Extensor digitroum longus (splits into 4 tendons distally)

  • Site:anterior leg
  • Attachment: upper aspet of tibia, interosseous membrane and fibula
  • Action: Ankle dorsiflexion of lateral 4 digits
  • Nerve supply: deep peroneal (fibular) nerve

c) Extensor hallucis longus

  • Site: anterior leg
  • Attachment: upper aspect of membrane and fibula
  • Action: Ankle dorsiflexion, extension of great toe
  • Never supply: deep peroneal (fibular) nerve
30
Q

Label the muscles of the anterior leg

A
31
Q

List the muscles of the lateral leg, their attachment, function and innervation

A

Muscles

  • Fibularis longus - Superfiical to brevis. Attaches to fibula and medial aspect of foot
  • Fibularis brevis - Deep to longus. Attaches to fibula and and lateral aspect of foot
  • Fibualris tertius - small muscle branching from extensor digitorum. Attaches to lateral aspect of foot

Function - ankle eversion

Innervation - Common fibular nerve

32
Q

Describe the division of the common fibular nerve

A
  • Divides into a ‘deep fibular nerve’ branch by the anterior department and a ‘superficial fibular nerve’ that supplies the fibular muscle
  • Superficial branch travels between the muscles innervating them before appearing in the subutaneous branch supplying the lateral side of the leg before supplying the skin on the top of the foot
33
Q

Label the structures of the lateral leg

A
34
Q

Describe the features that contribute to the direct tracking of the patella and prevent damage of it

A
  • Raised lateral femoral condyle - Resists lateral dislocation of the patella
  • Horizontal fibres of vastus medialis - The horizontal fibres of vastus medialis counteract the lateral pull of the quadriceps group of muscles
35
Q

Why is anterior knee pain more common in women than in men?

A

The line of the ankle of the femur is more oblique due to wider nature of the female pelvis which is adapted for childbirth

36
Q

Describe the consequences of patient with a compression of the deep peroneal nerve

A
  • Muscles supplied by deep peroneal nerve will not function anymore
  • This leads to a condition called ‘foot drop’ where you can’t lift your toes off the floor
  • This becomes a problem when walking, toes do not lift up the floor and get dragged along
  • People with foot drop can be seen with scuff marks on the toe of their shoe beacuse they can’t clear the floor and they might develop a high stepping gate, in order to clear the floor as they walk
37
Q

Label the structures of the gluteal muscle

A
38
Q

List the hip lateral rotators

A
  • Pisiformis
  • Obturator internus
  • Superior and inferior gemelli
  • Obturator externus
  • Quadratus femoris
39
Q

Label the structures of the hip rotators in the gluteal region

A
40
Q

A patient who has worn a cast on his leg for the past 6 weeks suffers from foot drop. Upon examination the GP diagnoses damage to the common peroneal (fibular) nerve. At which location to you think this nerve has been compressed?

A

Neck of fibula

41
Q

List the muscles found in the posterior leg

A

3 hamstring muscles

  • Semitendinous muscle
  • Semimembranous muscle
  • Biceps femoris (short head and long head)
42
Q

a) Describe the oblique popliteal nerve and it’s importance
b) Why is it helpful surgery?

A

a) It is a small bad on tendonous fibres that head back diagonally to cross behind the knee joint. It is important in supporting the back of the knee joint
b) If the cruciate ligament needs to be repaired/replaced a graph of the oblique popliteal ligament can be taken and used

43
Q

a) List the muscles in the superifical compartment of the posterior leg
b) List the muscles in the deep compartment of the posterior leg

A

a)

  • Gastrocnemius
  • Soleus
  • Plantaris

b)

  • Popliteus
  • Flexor Digitorum longus
  • Tibialis posterior
  • Flexor hallucis longus
44
Q

Describe the site, attachments, action and nerve supply of the muscles in the superficial compartment of the posterior leg

A

Gastrocnemius

  • Site - posterior leg
  • Attachments - 2 heads that attach to medial and lateral femoral condyles - calcaneous via achilles tendon
  • Action - Ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion
  • Nerve supply - Tibial nerve

Soleus

  • Site - posterior leg
  • Attachments - Deep to gastrocnemius and attaches from posterio aspect tibia, nterosseous membrane and fibula - calcaneous via achilles tendon
  • Action - Plantar flexion
  • Nerve supply - Tibial nerve

Plantaris - small muscle with thin long tendon

  • Site - posterior leg
  • Attachments - Infero-lateral aspect femur - calcaneous via achilles tendon
  • Action- Weak knee flexion, weak ankle plantar flexion
45
Q

Describe the site, attachments, action and nerve supply of the muscles in the deep compartment of the posterior leg

A

Popliteus (short oblique)

  • Site- posterior knee
  • Attachments - posterior aspect lateral meniscus - posterior tibia
  • Action - Pulls lateral meniscus posteriouly in unlocking of the knee
  • Nerve supply - tibial

Flexor digitorum longus (long, thin tendon)

  • Site- Posterior leg
  • Attachments - Posterior tibia, interosseous membrane and fibula - distal phlanages of 4 digits
  • Action - Ankle (talocural joint) plantar flexion, flexion of lateral 4 digits
  • Nerve supply - Tibial

Tibialis posterior (long spinde shaped)

  • Site - posterior leg
  • Attachments - Posterior tibia, interosseous membran and fibula - medial aspect midfoot, inferior aspect of 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals
  • Action - Ankle (talorcural joint) lanatr flexion, ankle (subtalar) inversion. Supports medial longitudinal arch of foot
  • Nerve suuply - Tibial

Flexor hallucis longus (long.chunky)

  • Site - posterior leg
  • Attachments - Posterior interosseous membrane and fibula
  • Action - Ankle (talorcrural joint) plantar flexion, flexion of the great toe. Propels the body in “toe off” aspect of gait cycle**​
  • Nerve supply - Tibial
46
Q

Which muscle in the deep compartment of the posterior leg supports the medial longitudinal arch of foot?

A

Tibialis posterior

47
Q

a) Which muscle in the deep compartment of the posterior leg is involved in the gait cycle?
b) Describe its involvement

A

a) Flexor hallucis longus
b) Propels the body in “toe off” aspect of gait cycle

48
Q

Label the structures in the superficial compartment of the posterior leg

A
49
Q

Label the muscles in the deep compartment of the posterior leg

A
50
Q

What is the role of the soleal pump

A

It is a mechanism that is responsible for pumping venous blood back into the heart from the periphery

51
Q

List the anatomy of the hip joint

A

Anterior view

  • Anterior inferior iliac spine (ASIS)
  • Superior pubic ramis
  • Pubic tubercule
  • Greater trochanter
  • Obturator foramen
  • Ischial tuberosity

Posterior view

  • Greater sciatic notch

Head of femur

Acetabulum (socket)

Neck of femur

Articular cartilage

Synovial membrane and fluid

Fovea

52
Q

List the osteology of the pelvic bone

A

Hip bone

  • Ilium
  • Pubis
  • Ishium

Sacrum

Coccyx

53
Q

a) What secretes the synovial fluid?
b) What’s the role of the synovial fluid?

A

a) Synovial membrane secretes the synovial fluid
b) Nourishes and protects the joint

54
Q

Describe the role of the fovea

A

Provides attachment for a ligament called ligamentum teres

55
Q

Which strong ligaments reinforce the hip strong, making it strong and stable?

A
  • Ili-femoral ligament
  • Pubo-femoral ligament
  • Ischio-femoral
56
Q

Describe the blood supply to the femoral head in children

A
  • Growth plate between neck of femur and head of femur which retinacular arteries cannot cross so they do not supply blood all the way to the femoral head
  • The foveal artery comes off of the obturator artery that runs through the ligamentum teres femoris which supplies blood to the femoral head
  • So, children have two blood supplies to the proximal femur - one below the growth plate and one above
  • Once the growth plate disappears the retincular vessels can travel all the way up to the head
  • At this point the fovea artery will still be there but around age 40-50 years that artery will disappear
57
Q

Describe the blood supply to the femur in adults

A
  • Blood supply starts at the profunda femoris artery
  • As it heads distally it gives off circumflex arteries that wrap around the proximal femur
  • Retinacular vessels from the proximal femur travel proximally to supply the femoral head
58
Q

Describe the differences between the hip joint vs shoulder joint

A
59
Q

Describe the similaries between the hip joint and shoulder joint

A
60
Q

Which muscle that is used to plantarflex the ankle during extended periods of walking and why

A

Soleus - It has a higher proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibres and is therefore better suited to slower, repetitive contraction.

61
Q

Identify the muscle that is used during short burst of dynamic plantarflexion

A

Gastrocnemius has a higher proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibres and is therefore better suited to dynamic, powerful contraction.

62
Q

Name the bony structures of the knee joint

A
  • Patella (sesamoid bone)
  • Femoral condyles
  • Medial and lateral epicondyle
  • Intercondylar notch (lateral and medial lip) - between medial and lateral femoral codyles
  • Intercondylar ridge - middle of tibial plateau
  • Tibial plateau - articulates from the femoral condyles
  • Tibial tuberosity
  • Fibula
63
Q

Label the structure of the knee

A
64
Q

Describe the role of the patella

A
  • Holds the quadriceps tendon away from the joint surface which improves the leverage
  • Protects quadriceps tendon as it passes over the femoral condyles
65
Q

Describe the synovial joint of the knee

A
  • Capsule
  • Capsule is lined by synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid
  • Synovial fluide nourishes lubricates the articular surfaces on the fumer, tibia and patella
  • Cruciate ligaments inside joint capsule
66
Q

Name the ligaments of the knee

A
  • Anterior cruciate
  • Posterior cruciate
  • Medial (tibial) collateral
  • Lateral (tibial) collateral
  • Menisco femoral
  • Oblique popliteal
67
Q

Describe the attachment and function of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

A

Anterior cruciate ligament

  • Attchment: Medial aspect of anterior intercondylar ridge to medial aspect of lateral femoral condyle
  • Function - Prevents posterior displacement of femur/anterior displacement of tibial plateau and provides an axis for the fumer to rotate around during the locking of the knee

Posterior cruciate ligament

  • Attachment: Lateral aspect of inetrcondylar ridge posteriouly to lateral aspect of medial femoral condyle
  • Function: Prevents anterior displacement of femur/posterior displacement of tibial plateau
68
Q

How can anterior and posterior cruciate liagment injury occur

A

Anterior cruciate ligament injury can be caused by:

  • Posterior displacement of the femur
  • Anterior displacemeent of the tibia

Posterior cruciate lgament injury can be caused by:

  • Anterior displacement of the femur
  • Posterior displacement of the tibia
69
Q

Describe the attachment and function of the medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) collateral ligaments

A

Named after attchment on tibia

Medial (tibial) collateral ligament

  • Attachment - medial epicondyle of femur to medial aspect of tba and medial meniscus
  • Function - prevents abduction of the knee joint that would result in valgus deformity (knock knees)

Lateral (tibial) collateral ligament

  • Attachment - Lateral epicondyle of femur to head of fibula
  • Function - prevents lateral meniscus from moving too far posteriouly during unlocking of the knee
70
Q

Describe the attachment and function of the meniscofemoral ligament

A

Attachment - lateral meniscus posteriorly to lateral aspect of medial femoral condyle posterioly

Function - Reinforces the knee joint prosterioly

71
Q

a) Describe the role of the suprapatellar bursa
b) Describe the consequences if it becomes inflamed/irritated?

A

a)

  • Allows the smooth movement of one surface over aother, where there is likely to be a bit of friction
  • Allow quadricep tendon to move over femoral condyle

b) The synovial membrane responds by producing more synovial fluid to bathe and soothe the area

72
Q

a) Describe the role of the infrapatellar bursa
b) Describe the consequences if it becomes inflamed/irritated?

A

a) Allows the smooth movement of the skin over the patella
b) Causes swelling of anterior aspect of knee (caused commonly by kneeling a lot)

73
Q

a) Describe the structure of the medial and lateral meniscus
b) Decsribe the function of the menisci

A

a)

  • Medial meniscus - tethered to the medial collateral lgament and tibial plateau
  • Lateral meniscus (smaller) - not tethered and mobile

b) Increases the surface area of contact between the femoral condyles and tibial plateau (creates a cushioning effect as femure bares down on tibia) and helps spread synovial fluid around the joint

74
Q

Label the anatomy of the knee

A
75
Q

Label the structure of the knee

A
76
Q

List the bony stuctures of the foot and ankle

A
  • Tibia
  • Fibula
  • Malleoli -lateral and medial malleolus
  • Navicular
  • Clancaneous
  • Sustentacullum tali
  • Cuboid
  • Cuneiforms: medial, intermediate and lateral
  • Metatarsals - numbered 1 to 5 from big toe
  • Styloid processes
  • Phalanges - proximal and distal phalange in big toe and proximal, midde and distal phalanges in lateral 4 digits
77
Q

Label the structures of the ankle

A
78
Q

Name the ligaments of the foot and ankle joint

A
  • Syndesmosis of tibia and fibula
  • Talocural joint
  • Medial collateral ligament of anatomical ankle (talocural) joint
  • Lateral collateral ligament of anatomical ankle (talocural) joint
  • Subtalar joint
  • Midtarsal joint
  • Talo-calcaneo-navicular (spring) ligament of subtalar joint
  • Deltoid ligament
79
Q

Describe the function of the following joints in the ankle:

a) Syndesmosis of tibia and fibula
b) Medial collateral ligament of anatomical ankle (talocural) joint
c) Lateral collateral ligament of anatomical ankle (talocural) joint
d) Talo-calcaneo-navicula (spring) ligament of subtalar joint
e) Talocural joint
f) Sub-talar joint
g) Mid-tarsal joint
h) Deltoid ligament

A

a) Prevents seperation of the tibia and fibula
b) Prevents abduction of ankle joint
c) All prevent adduction of ankle joint
d) Prevents medial longitudinal arch from collapsing
e) Allows only passive movement of pronation and supination
f) Hinge joint -Inversion and eversion and prevents bones of legs from moving side to side in adduction/abduction
g) Allows plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint
h) Called the deltoid ligament because it is triangular shape. Originates from medical malleous. Itis very thing and strong, so makes it more difficult to evert the foot than invert it

80
Q

Why is the foot more likely to invert and damage the lateral ligmanets than evert and damage the medial ligaments?

A

The malleoli that form the joint are different shapes - with the lateral malleolus extending further distally. This reduces the range of movement in eversion, relative to inversion. The medial collateral ligaments are also
significantly stronger and further limit eversion.

81
Q

Which ligments are most likely affecting in ankle eversion?

A
  • The medial collateral (deltoid) ligament
  • Talocrural joints
82
Q

a) Which ankle ligament is most likely damaged in forced eversion?
b) Which ankle ligament is most likely damaged in forced inversion?

A

a) Medial collateral of anatomical ankle (talocural) joint
b) Lateral collateral of anatomical ankle (talocural) joint

83
Q

Which tendons/ligaments/msucles support the:

a) Anterior trasnverse arch
b) Lateral longitudinal arch
c) Medial longitudinal arch

A

a) Tendon of peroneus/fibularis longus
b) Tibialis posterior muscle
c) Spring/talo-calcaneo-navicular ligament, tibialis posterior muscle

84
Q

Describe the function of plantar aponeurosis

A
  • Thick layer of fascia
  • Attachches proximally to the calcanues and then comes out to attach to the heads of the metatarsals
  • As weight is loaded onto the foot it’s going to resist the proximal and distal end on the foot from coming together
  • Prevents skin slip on the sole of the foot so better grip on flor
  • Provides a cushion to walk on
85
Q

Femoral nerve

a) Which nerve roots does it arise from?
b) Which muscles does it innervate?
c) Which part of the skin does it innervate?

A

a) L2,3,4
b) Anterior thigh- quadriceps, sartorious, pectineus
c) Anterior thigh, medial leg (Saphenous nerve)

86
Q

Obturator nerve

a) Which nerve roots does it arise from?
b) Which muscles does it innervate?
c) Which part of the skin does it innervate?

A

a) L2,3
b) Medial thigh - Adductors (excepting pectineus and posterior portion of adductor magnus)
c) Medial thigh

87
Q

Which nerves does the sciatic nerve split into?

A

Tibial and common peroneal (fibular) nerve

88
Q

Tibial nerve

a) Which nerve roots does it arise from?
b) Which muscles does it innervate?
c) Which part of the skin does it innervate?

A

a) L4, 5, S1,2, 3
b) Posterior thigh - hamstrings, posterior leg
c) Posterior leg (Sural nerve), sole of foot (plantar nerves

89
Q

Common peroneal (fibular) nerve

a) Which nerve roots does it arise from?
b) Which muscles does it innervate?
c) Which part of the skin does it innervate?

A

a) L4,5,S1,2
b) Anterior leg, lateral leg
c) Lateral leg, dorsum of foot

90
Q

Superior gluteal nerve

a) Which nerve roots does it arise from?
b) Which muscles does it innervate?
c) Which part of the skin does it innervate?

A

a) L4, 5, S1
b) Gluteal region - gluteus medius and minimus, tensor fascia latate
c) None

91
Q

Inferior gluteal nerve

a) Which nerve roots does it arise from?
b) Which muscles does it innervate?
c) Which part of the skin does it innervate?

A

a) L5,S1,2
b) Gluteal region - gluteus maximus
c) None

92
Q

Name the correct nerves

A
  • yellow - femoral nerve
  • blue - obturator nerve
  • red - sciatic and then splitting into tibial nerve
  • green - deep common peroneal nerve
  • purple - supericial common peroneal nerve
93
Q

Name the peripheral nerves, describe the nerve roots they arise from and the muscles and skin the innervate

A