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Flashcards in 1.2 Deck (33)

Where do male germ cells colonise?

Sex cords in the medulla of the primordial gonad.


What do sex cords connect with?

Rete testis, epididymis and vas deferens


What do germ cells do after colonisation of the gonad?

Proliferation by mitosis to form spermatogonia stem cell (self regerating).
Reshuffle genetically and reduce to haploid by meiosis.
Cytodifferentiate into mature gametes


What happens to the sex cords at puberty?

They hollow out to form seminiferous tubules where sperm are produced.


Describe spermatogonia.

Maintained by mitosis, have not begun meiosis.
Raw material for spermatogenesis available up to and beyond 70 years.
Sit in periphery of seminiferous tubules.


Describe A1 Spermatogonia

These undergo differentiation to produce either more type A (stem) cells or type B cells, which differentiate into spermatozoa.


How do type B spermatognium divide?

Fixed number of mitotic divisions to produce 64 diploid primary spermatocytes, linked together by cytoplasm bridges.


How do primary spermatocytes divide?

The chain of primary spermatocytes, linked by the cytoplasm bridge, push their way to the lumen of the seminiferous tubule and begin meiosis to form 4 haploid spermatids each.


How many spermatids does each A1 spermatognium yield?

up to 256 spermatids


What are the functions of meiosis?

Reduce the chromosome number to 23 (haploid).
Ensures every gamete is genetically unique.


In females how many of the daughter cells of meiosis matures? What happens to the others?

One --> oocyte
Others --> Polar bodies


How does genetic variation arise form meiosis?

Crossing over - exchange of regions of DNA between two homologous chromosomes. (Recombination -Prophase I)
Random segregation - distribution of chromosomes among four gametes.
Independent assortment - two homolog chromosomes of a pair must go into separate gametes.


What is the process of spermoiogenesis

Spermatids released into lumen of tubules
Remodelling spermatids to form spermatozoa, breaking of cytoplasmic bridges as they pass through the tete testis, ductuli efferent and epididymis.
Non motile until they reach epididymis


Describe sertoli cell function

Testicular origin
Help spermatogonia by feeding and stimulating
Site of action for hormones controlling spermatogenesis.
Secrete fluid to wash non motile spermatids to rete testis (assisted by peristaltic contration)


What is spermiation?

Spermatids released into lumen of seminiferous tubules.


How long does spermatogenesis take?

70 days


How often do new groups of A1 Spermatogonia arise?

16 days


How many spermatogenic processes occur simultaneously?



Describe the spermatogenic wave.

Production of sperm is continuous because different sections along the length of the tubule begin the process at different times so some part is always releasing sperm. A wave of production sweeps along the length of the tubule.
The distance on the tube between parts that are in the same stage is the spermatogenic wave.


What is the spermatogenic cycle?

The development of A1 spermatogonia to 256 sperms.
The amount of time it takes for reappearance of the same stage of the cycle within a given segment of the tubule.


Describe emission and what it is dependent on.

Contractions of the vas deferens sweep sperm to be mxdd with other components of semen form the seminal vesicles (60%) and prostate (20%).
Dependent on the sympathetic NS


Describe the constituents of semen.

2ml per ejaculate.
Seminal vesicle secretions (70%) - amino acids, citrate, fructose, prostaglandins.
Prostatic secretions (25%) - proteolytic enzymes, zinc.
Sperm (via vas deferens - 2-5%) - 200-500 million per ejaculate
Bulbourethral (Cowper) gland secretions - mucoproteins help lubricate and neutralise acidic urine in distal urethra.


What is the path of sperm and where do secretions join?

Seminiferous tubules
Rete testis
Ductuli efferentes
Epididymis Vas deferens (Seminal vesicle secretion)
Urethra (Prostate and bulbourethral gland)


Describe the maturation of sperm.

Conditions in female genital tract stimulate:
Removal of glycoproteins and cholesterol from sperm membrane.
Activation of sperm signalling pathways
Allow sperm to bind to zona pellucid of oocyte and initiate acrosome reaction.


Give the role of the tete testis

Network of canals in the mediastinum of the testis that the seminiferous tubules drain into.


Give the role of the epidiymis

Duct in which sperm are stored and continue to mature.


Give the role of the vas deferens

Continuation of the epididymis - thick muscular walls and minute omen,
Muscular walls contract during copulation and force sperm along the tube to be mixed with other components of semen.


Give the role of the seminal vesicles.

Secrete a thick, alkaline fluid rich in fructose (energy) and a coagulating agent.
60% of semen
Duct of the seminal gland joins the vas defrens to form the ejaculatory duct.


Give the role of the prostate

Prostatic fluid makes up 20% of amen volume and helps activate sperm.


Give the role of the bulbourethral glands

Pea-sized glands (Cowpers) lie posterolateral to intermediate urethra, embedded within external urethral sphincter.
Ducts of the bulbourethral glands open into the proximal part of the sponge urethra in the bulb of the penis.
Mucus like secretion enters urethra in arousal.


What would happen to an XY with genitalia insensitive to testosterone/DHT

Testes remain in abdomen but removed post puberty (malignancy risk).
Well developed breasts, no pubic hair, no menstruation.
Genital ambiguity


XX individual with excessive androgen secretion

Externallymale but genetically female with internal genitalia of both


XY with resistance to MIH

Internal of both sexes.
Testes fail to descend