Flashcards in Male Repro Problems Deck (20):
What is hydrocoele? What is it due to?
Why may it enlarge in young when coughing?
Serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis
Commonly due to failure of tunica vaginalis
When youn, hydrocoeles are still connected to peritoneal cavity so enlarge when cough due to raised pressure.
What is hematocoele?
Blood in the tunica vaginalis
How can hydrocoele and haematocoele be distinguished?
Transillumination as light can pass through serous fluid but not blood.
What is varicocoele? How does it feel?
Varicositeis (abnormal dialtion) of the pampiniform venous plexus.
Feels like a bag of worms.
Why does varicocoele occur most commonly on left?
Left testicular vein travels superiorly and connects with the left renal vein, while right rrains into the inferior vena cava.
LRV is much higher.
Varicosities form when valve system between two veins all and blood fassl backwards under the pull of gravity.
Right testicular vein drains directly into the inferior vena cava at an oblique angle, further down.
Valves do not have to support the same weight of blood.
The left drains into a smaller vessel - LRV, at a perpendicular angle.
What does right sided varicosity suggest?
Raised IVC pressure due to obstruction.
What is spermatocoele?
Retention cyst within the epididymis.
Contains turbid fluid that inhibits transillumination.
Segment is marginally connected to the rete testis and contains degenerate products of spermatogenesis.
What is an epididymal cyst?
Contains clear fluid and transilluminates brightly.
Arises from unconnected segments of the efferent tubules.
Inflammation of the epidermis, usually due to infection.
Describe inguinal hernia, direct and indirect.
Contents of abdominal cavity can protrude into scrotum via the inguinal canal.
Hernia directly into inguinal area
Medial to epigastric vessels
Hernia indirectly into inguinal area via inguinal canal.
Latera to inferior epigastric vessels
Reopening fo processus vaginalis gives potential continuity between peritoneal cavity and tunica vaginalis.
What is testicular torsion? Where does it occur?
Twisting of the spermatic cord
Risk of necrosis of the testes.
Usually occurs just above upper pole of testes.
What is cryptorchid?
Spermatogenesis is impaired due to elevated temperature
Germ cells are absent while sertoli cells and leydig cells secrete male sex hormones.
Increased risk of malignancy
What is orchitis?
Inflammation of the testis
Sometimes leading to seminiferous tubule degeneration and infertility.
Where does benign prostatic hyperplasia occur?
Occurs mainly in central zone/middle lobule
What symptoms does BPH present with? Why?
Dysuria, noturia, urgency due to zone's close proximity to the urethra.
Where do prostatic malignancies usually occur?
Why do prostatic malignancies present late
Need to get very large to compress urethra.
How do prostatic malignancies metastiasize?
Lymphatics (internal iliac and sacral lymph nodes)
Venous route (internal vertebral plexus to vertebrae and brain)
Describe PSA testing
In BPH, prostate specific antigen is normal/slightly raised.
In Carcinoma - markedly raised