Weimar Republic 1918-1929 Flashcards Preview

GCSE History - Weimar & Nazi Germany > Weimar Republic 1918-1929 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Weimar Republic 1918-1929 Deck (68)
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1
Q

When did Germany start fully acknowledge they were losing the war? What did this mean for Kaiser Wilhelm II ?

A

Autumn 1918 - trouble

2
Q

When did Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicate?

A

end of ww1

3
Q

What did the Kaiser’s abdication result in?

A

dmcrtc rpblc fmd in Germany & peace with Allies

4
Q

When was the new German government created? What was it called?

A

10th Nov 1918 - Weimar Rpblc

5
Q

Who was the first chancellor of the Weimar Republic? Which party was he leader of?

A

Ebert - social Dmcrtc prty

6
Q

What treaty was signed to mark the end of WW1?

A

Armistice

7
Q

Define proportional representation.

A

system that allocates prlmntry seats in prprtn to no. of votes

8
Q

State 3 strengths of the Weimar Constitution.

A
  • all Germans had equal rights eg. voting
  • each state had own trdtns. so kpt cntrl over own affairs
  • prptnl rprsntn made it fair that pltcl prts got seats = no. of votes
9
Q

State 3 weaknesses of the Weimar Consitution.

A
  • president had too much power, could easily bcm dcttr
  • prptnl rprsntn meant no party could get a majority = not strong gov.
  • states could be hostile to ntnl gov & even overthrow it
10
Q

After signing the armistice, what did the Weimar Republic become know as? Why?

A

Nov Criminals - German ppl felt let down, as Kaiser created impression that Germany was winning ww1

11
Q

What was the ‘stab in the back’ theory/dolchstoss?

A

German ppl felt betrayed by gov for surrendering & unptrtc attitudes -> war effort

12
Q

What was Article 48?

A

in emergency, president could make laws without going to Reichstag

13
Q

At the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, who were discussions dominated by?

A

‘Big Three’ - Clemenceau, Lloyd George & Wilson

14
Q

How was the USA, France & Britain affected by the war?

A

destroyed France’s land, USA had high mortality rates & Britain had economic struggles

15
Q

What kind of ‘peace’ did the USA, France & Britain want?

A

USA -> not involved in European affairs
France -> Revenge
England -> just peace

16
Q

Why were negotiation between the Big Three so difficult?

A

v diff. opinions

17
Q

What is the acronym to remember the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

A

Land
Army
Money
Blame

18
Q

What percentage of Germany’s land was taken due to the ToV? Why was this a problem for Germany?

A

13% - lots of lost land contained raw materials sold for economic gain

19
Q

What area of Germany was demilitarised due to ToV?

A

Rhineland

20
Q

What was the German army reduced to due to ToV? What did this mean for Germany?

A

100,000 - lessened ability to dominate a war

21
Q

How many battleships was Germany allowed after ToV?

A

6

22
Q

What was the total amount of reparations that Germany had to pay to France & Belgium due to ToV?

A

£6.6 billion

23
Q

What did the reparations mean for Germany?

A

became economically weakened overall

24
Q

What was the ‘war guilt’ clause, as part of ToV? What did this mean for Germany?

A

Germany had to take full responsibility for WW1 - bcm unpopular globally

25
Q

Define Freikorps.

A

ex - soldiers who refused to de-arm & caused violence -> Weimar Republic

26
Q

Who led the Spartacist Uprising (SU)? What side of politics were they?

A

Liebknecht & Luxembourg (far left)

27
Q

When was the SU?

A

Jan 1919

28
Q

What happened in the SU?

A

KDP tried to overthrow Ebert & Weimar gov by taking control of newspaper building

29
Q

How was the SU defeated?

A

Ebert usd reg. army end -> rebellion in 5 days, Liebknecht & Luxemburg killed

30
Q

Define putsch.

A

violent attempt to overthrow gov.

31
Q

Who led the Kapp Putsch (KP)? What side of politics were they?

A

Ehrhardt & Kapp (far right)

32
Q

When did the KP take place?

A

13th March 1920

33
Q

What happened during the KP?

A

Kapp seized cntrl & mde hmslf Berlin’s Hd of Stte -> rbld Germany’s army & tke bck ‘stolen’ land by ToV

34
Q

How was the KP defeated? When?

A

Ebert told people not to support KP & strike -> 18th March 1920 Ehrhardt & Kapp fled

35
Q

Define hyperinflation.

A

financial inflation occuring at very ↑ rate

36
Q

When was the Year of Crisis?

A

1923

37
Q

What happen during the Year of Crisis?

A

Weimar gov printed more & more ££ to make reparation payments -> prices ↑ = hyperinflation

38
Q

What became worthless during the Year of Crisis?

A

German mark

39
Q

What did Germany fail to do, which spiralled down into the Year of Crisis?

A

pay reparation payments to France

40
Q

How did France react to Germany’s failure to pay reparations? When?

A

Jan 1923 - occupied Ruhr region to take resources

41
Q

Why did France need to collect the reparations?

A

needed to pay off own war debts to USA

42
Q

What did Germans do to resist the French occupation?

A

workers in Ruhr striked, set factories on fire & flooded mines

43
Q

What did the occupation do to the dynamic of the German people?

A

brght ppl tgthr -> unite agnst France as German gov backed strike

44
Q

What was the value of the German mark in 1914?

A

20 marks

45
Q

What was the value of the mark in November 1923?

A

1,680,800,000,000,000

46
Q

Who lost money during Year of Crisis?

A

ppl wth fixed income or savings

47
Q

Who benefitted from hyperinflation?

A

foreign immigrants

48
Q

Who become German chancellor in August 1923?

A

Stresemann

49
Q

What temporary currency was invented to restore confidence in Germany money? When?

A

Nov 1923 - Retenmark

50
Q

When was the German currency converted back to the Reichsmark? Why?

A

1924 - bckd by gold reserves

51
Q

What were the 3 terms of the Dawes plan? When was it created?

A

August 1924
- reparation payments made more manageable eg. 1 billion marks 1st year
- 1925 Ruhr occupation ended
- USA give loans to help recover ie. $3,000 million

52
Q

What happened in September 1926 that allowed Germany to return to its ‘Great Power’ status?

A

given permanent seat on Council of the League of Nations

53
Q

What was the 1927 Labour Exchange Act?

A

reforms md for better living cndtns for wkng clss

54
Q

By 1928, what percentage increase was there in people’s wages?

A

10%

55
Q

By 1928, how many new homes had been built?

A

3 million

56
Q

What the Kellogg - Briand Pact 1928?

A

Germany & 64 other nations agreed to solve international disputes by ‘peaceful means’

57
Q

What was the Young Plan 1929? How much were reparation figures reduced by?

A

new plans for reparation payments
= £6.6 billion -> £1.85 billion

58
Q

How many middle class workers were looking for jobs by 1928?

A

184,000

59
Q

What time period was the Golden Age?

A

1924 - 1929

60
Q

By 1928, how much was homelessness in Germany reduced by?

A

60%

61
Q

What was the Unemployment Insurance Law? When was it passed?

A

1927 - included protection of ill/elderly & benefits -> war veterans, wives etc.

62
Q

When were women in Germany given the vote? Over what age?

A

1919 - women ovr 20

63
Q

How many female teachers were there by 1933?

A

100,000

64
Q

What did women have more of, as a result of the Golden Age?

A

freedom socially

65
Q

Why were women criticised during the Golden Age?

A

for working & neglecting their homes

66
Q

What types of culture became increasingly popular, during 1924 - 1929?

A

art, theatre & opera

67
Q

Name one artist who was able to particulary flourish during the Golden Age.

A

Otto Dix

68
Q

As a result of the Golden Age, why did German culture become very popular?

A

german people had larger variety of social activities