1.3 RNA and Transcription Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.3 RNA and Transcription Deck (27)
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1

Structure of RNA

• single stranded molecule
• composed of RNA nucleotides

2

Where RNA molecules are found

• nucleus
• cytoplasm

3

Composition of RNA nucleotide

• phosphate
• ribose sugar
• RNA bases

4

The four RNA bases

Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine

5

RNA Base pairings

Adenine and Uracil
Cytosine and Guanine

6

The bonds that exist between the RNA bases

Weak hydrogen bonds

7

The bonds that exist between the ribose sugar and the phosphate group

Strong sugar phosphate bonds

8

Three different types of RNA and their functions

• mRNA- messenger RNA, carries the genetic code from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
•rRNA- ribosomal RNA, along with proteins forms the ribosome
•tRNA- transfer RNA carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome

9

What the instructions for protein synthesis are coded in

The order of bases on DNA

10

The building blocks of proteins

Amino acids

11

The number of different amino acids that exist naturally within cells

Twenty

12

A sequence of three bases on the DNA

Triplet

13

Another term for triplet code

Sequence of bases coding for proteins

14

Requirements for transcription

• DNA to act as a template for the new RNA molecule
•RNA polymerase
• ATP for energy
• Free RNA nucleotides (Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine)

15

Where transcription takes place

The nucleus

16

Complementary pairings between the DNA and mRNA molecule

A - U
T - A
C - G
G - C

17

Describe transcription

mRNA carrying a code for a protein from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

18

Group of three bases on the mRNA strand

Codon

19

What the primary mRNA strand contains

Introns and exons

20

Definition of intron

Non coding region of the gene

21

Definition of exon

Coding region of the gene

22

Definition of splicing

The introns in the primary transcript are removed during transcription

23

What forms the mature mRNA transcript

The exons not removed by splicing

24

Where splicing takes place

The nucleus

25

What each triplet on the mRNA strand codes for

One specific amino acid

26

The two processes resulting in different proteins being expressed from one gene

• Alternative RNA splicing
• Post translation modification

27

Definition of alternative RNA splicing

Different RNA molecules being produced during RNA splicing as sometimes exons are removed along with the introns next to them