1.3 Translation and Proteins Flashcards Preview

Higher Human Biology Unit 1 > 1.3 Translation and Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.3 Translation and Proteins Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...
1

Single stranded molecule involved in the process of translation

tRNA (transfer RNA)

2

Why there are folds in the tRNA molecule

Weak hydrogen bonds formung between the base pairings of nucleotides

3

Triplet of bases on the tRNA molecule

Anticodon

4

What the anticodon on the tRNA molecule determines

Which specific amino acid that each tRNA molecule will pick up and carry to the ribosome

5

The roles of tRNA in protein synthesis

•collect specific amino acids
•transport their specific amino acids to the amino acids to the ribosome
•pair the anticodon with the correct codon on the mRNA transcript, ensuring that the specific amino acid is in the correct place in the polypeptide chain

6

The bond that forms between the adjacent amino acids

Peptide bond

7

Brief description of translation

mRNA codons translated by the tRNA molecules into a polypeptide chain

8

Where translation takes place

The ribosome

9

Explain start codon

The first three bases on the mRNA strand (the first codon)

10

Explain stop codon

The last three bases on an mRNA strand (the last codon)

11

What the sequence of the codons on the mRNA strand determine

The sequence if the amino acids in the polypeptide chain

12

What the tRNA molecule does after the peptide bond has formed between the two adjacent amino acids

•is released from the amino acid
•leaves the ribosome
•picks up another one of its specific amino acids from the cytoplasm

13

Explain post translation modification

The structure of the protein is modified after the process of translation

14

How a protein is modified during post translation modification

•cutting and joining of polypeptide chains
•addition of carbohydrate
•addition of phosphate groups

15

How gene expression is controlled

Throught regulating the process of transcription and translation

16

What an organism's phenotypes are determined by

The proteins produced as a result of genes being expressed

17

What gene expression is influenced by

Intra-cellular and extra-cellular environmental factors