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Flashcards in PART 5 Deck (30)
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1
Q

Fungal disease
Cause spinal cord infexn
Most common fungus to affect CNS
May affects dogs and cats

tx

A

Cryptococcus neoformans infections

Drug of choice: Fluconazole

2
Q

cause total or partial paralysis

A

Cryptococcus neoformans infections

3
Q

A protozoal disease
common in the Americas
infection via ingestion of sporocysts

causative agent

A

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

Sarcocystis neurona

4
Q

EPM
brain involvelemt

spinal cord involvement

A

brain:
Seizures
Behavioral abnormalities

spinal cord
Paralysis
Ataxia

5
Q

4 drugs that can treat EPM (PDSP)

A

Ponazuril
Diclazuril
Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

6
Q

Sulfadiazie and pyrimethamine: Prolonged used may lead to ___
Recommended to give with ____ forage

Alfalfa hay or ____ pasture → prevents 1st answer

A

anemia
green

7
Q

risk factor (EPM tx)

  • drug to treat this
A

immunosuppression

Levamisole
Immunomodulator to prevent immunosuppression

8
Q

preventives for EPM

A

management

Entry of IH and DH host in the farm

Disinfection of water and feed
Trap opossum → not effective management for this

9
Q

Parasitic disease + causative agent

A

Verminous myelitis and encephalitis

Setaria
Eye worm

Halicephalobus deletriz
Strongylus vulgaris

10
Q

Animal has anxious appearance
Third eyelid is seen
sunken
Stretched forelimbs
Limbs cannot be flexed
Stiffness can be generalized or localized

casuative agent

A

TETANUS

clostridium tetani

11
Q

tetanus Jaw, or muscles of the neck, or hindlimb or forelimbs
Observed on the injury region

A

localizex

12
Q

tetanus
Occurs a day later
Sensitive to touch
Painful sensitivity
Animal may become violent
Animal may be hyperexcitable to excessive light or sound
Spasms → severity can cause bone fractures

A

generalized

13
Q

days of Average incubation tetanus

A

10-14 days

14
Q

Rapid breathing, increased HR
Death due to paralysis of respiratory system
what dz

A

tetanus

15
Q

bacteria gives off toxin after it dies so it is recommended to give _____

A

tetanus antitoxin

16
Q

tetanus tx

A

Wound management
Sometimes wound is not visible

Antibiotics
Will kill bacteria and bacteria will release toxin after it died so recommended to give antitoxin -> fluid therapy

Tetanus antitoxin

Fluid therapy (when toxin is involved)
Helps flush out toxin

17
Q

Immunization (recommended):
Mares -
Foals -
Booster -

A

Immunization (recommended):
Mares - last 6 weeks of pregnancy
Foals - 5 to 8 weeks of age
Booster - after 1 yr

18
Q

tetanus:
Hypersensitive: ___ stimulation can trigger spasm

management:

A

light

Kept in a dark and quiet stall

19
Q

Arboviral - arthropod borne viral diseases
Arbo: arthropod borne

genus + family

plus other term

A

EQUINE VIRAL ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
“Equine arboviral encephalomyelitis”

20
Q

EVE:
Africa, middle east, neighboring asian and european countries

primary reservoir

A

West nile (WNV)

21
Q

Distributed in US, canada, S. america

Not in canada

Mexico, central america, s. america

A

Eastern equine (EEE)
Distributed in US, canada, S. america

Western equine (WEE)
Not in canada

Venezuela equine (VEE)
Mexico, central america, s. america

22
Q

More severe in terms of CS
Can progress to death in short period of time

signs less severe

A

Eastern (EEE) and Venezuela (VEE)
More severe in terms of CS
Can progress to death in short period of time

West nile (WNV), Western (WEE):
Signs less severe

23
Q

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE)
Western equine encephalitis (WEE)
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)

genus + family

A

genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae

24
Q

West Nile virus (WNV) genus + fmily

A

genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae

25
Q

is EVE zoonotic

A

yes

26
Q

Fever initially
Vision impairment
Aimless wandering
Head pressing
Circling
Inability to swallow
Irregular gait
Weakness and paralysis
Convulsions
death

A

EVE

27
Q

Humans: mild flu-like to death
Especially in immunocompromised and elderly
Can have permanent neurologic damage

A

EVE

28
Q

Horses can eliminate without presenting CS
But have Abs

A

EVE

29
Q

EVE diagnosis

A

Clinical signs
Detection of antibodies IgM

30
Q

EVE tx

A

Anti-inflamm
Anticonvulsants
IV fluids