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Flashcards in PART 3 Deck (27)
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1
Q

HPP: Dietary potassium should be lowered to

2 more prevention

A

0.6% - 1.1%
prevent ingesting large amount of K in the diet

regular exercise
Pasturing
-Forage grasses have high moisture content which may dilute potassium content in grass

2
Q

drugs to treat episodes of HPP

A

Acetazolamide
hydrochlorothiazide

3
Q

peripheral nervous dz:
degenerative diseases
toxin:

A
  1. degenerative diseases- stringhalt, equine laryngeal paralysis
  2. diseases caused by toxins- botulism, shaker foal syndrome, ionophore toxicity
4
Q

2 test for peripeheral nerve dz

A

-trotting the horse
as it slows down, the abnormality can be seen
Backing
Abnormality: increased flexion of affected limb
Bunny hopping - involuntary exaggerated hyperflexion of hindlimbs, snapping towards abdomen

5
Q

tx for strignhalt (hyperflexion)

other term

is it a blemish or unsoundess?

A

surgical resection of the Lateral Digital Extensor

Equine Reflex Hypertonia

unsoundness

6
Q

Most obvious during these times ang stringhalt

2 categories of stringhalt

A

walk, walking uphill, curvature

acquired and idiopathic

7
Q

acquired stringhalt causative agent

other term

A

plant associated
Ingestion of Flatweed (Hypochaeris radicata) or False Dandelion
sporadic

“Aka: Australian stringhalt”
Most cases occur here
But not exclusive to Australia; some cases observed in US

8
Q
  • associated with injury, trauma, damage to a specific area
  • atypical
  • Resolves on their own since it has no specific cause \
    other term
A

Idiopathic (true or classical stringhalt)

9
Q

strignhalt diagnosis

A

clinical signs
diagnostic imaging (X-ray or Utz)
gait analysis

10
Q

strighalt tx and surgery is 100% curative t/f

Muscle and tendon (resect a specific portion of Lateral Digital Extensor)

A

f

myotenectomy of LDE

11
Q

Used to alleviate signs of stringhalt, but effects are only temporary

A

Phenytoin
anticonvulsant

Acepromazine
tranquilizer

12
Q

prognosis in stringhalt vary. t/f

A

t

Some horses return to performance after surgery
Some cases experience relapse and may not turn to normal

13
Q

a degenerative disease
high occurrence in males and larger breeds

A

Equine laryngeal paralysis

14
Q

SHAKER FOAL SYNDROME
Agent + other term

A

C. botulinum + botulism

15
Q

source of shaker foal syndrome
+ no. 1 source

A

rotting carcass and vegetation: source
Stagnant ponds
swimming water fowls such as geese, ducks
No 1 host
Rotting carcass of rats or vermin may also be sources

16
Q

Definitive dx of shaker foal syndrome

A

heck for toxins (toxicology)
Detected from blood, feces, food

17
Q

Tx for shaker faol syndrome + prevention in endemic areas

A

IV (supportive therapy) + vaccine

18
Q

stilted gait
muscle tremors
inability to stand
difficulty in swallowing
Due to paralysis
constipation
dilated pupils
frequent urination

what dz?

A

SHaker foal syndrime

19
Q

Animals that die of botulism (and even tetanus) is usually caused by ______due to paralysis of the muscles involved.

A

cardiac or respiratory arrest

20
Q

antiprotozoal drug
Mixed with poultry and ruminant feeds
horses are sensitive to (even to low) levels of this
often fatal; no treatment

A

monensin contamination

21
Q

3 forms of organophosphate poisoning

A

Has 3 forms:
Acute
Intermediate
Delayed

22
Q

2 signs? of OP

A

Rolling - colic or abdominal pain
Gait - not straight , circling

23
Q

acute form of OP inihibits ___

resulting to

A

acetylcholinesterase

Cholinergic signs → DUMBELLS
Cholinergic: GI motility
Diarhrea, urination, myosis, bradycardia, bronchospasm, excitation of skeletal muscles, lacrimation, salivation, sweating

24
Q

OP: generalized muscle weakness
dilated pupils

what type

degeneration of nerves
what type?\

cholinergic crisis
what type?

A

Intermediate

delayed

acute

25
Q

Atrophy of suprascapularis
Swinging of shoulder

Visible ang spine of scapula

A

sweeney

Peripheral nerve injury

26
Q

what does DUMBELL stands for

A

Diarhrea, urination, myosis, bradycardia, bronchospasm, excitation of skeletal muscles, lacrimation, salivation, sweating

27
Q

what type of OP
Generalized muscle weakness
May manifest as partial paralysis
Stiffness of the neck

tx

A

intermediate

atropine